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Local Green Practice

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This refers to the notion that knowledge and theory derive from practice and in turn they are put back into practice. As Mao Zedong stated, “Knowledge begins with practice. Theoretical knowledge is acquired through practice, and it must then be put back into practice. The active function of knowledge manifests itself not only in the active leap from perceptual to rational knowledge, but—and this is more important—it must manifest itself in the leap from rational knowledge to revolutionary practice.” Mao Zedong also said, “Generally speaking, those that succeed are correct and those that fail are incorrect.” Practice is a criterion not only for testing truth but also for fallacy.


  • Yangtze River Basin
  • Gorge Reservoir
  • Green Development
  • Ecological Security
  • Gorge Reservoir Area

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-2806-9_6
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  1. 1.

    Mao Zedong: “Where Do Correct Ideas Come From?” (May 1963), Mao Zedong Collected Works, Vol VIII, page 321, Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1999.

  2. 2.

    Edited by the author: Preamble of the Methodology of Scientific Outlook on Development: Taking Chongqing as an Example, Beijing, CPC Building Books Publishing House, 2010.

  3. 3.

    Mao Zedong: “On Practice” (July 1937), Mao Zedong Selected Works, Volume 1, page 281.

  4. 4.

    Mao Zedong: “Where do correct ideas come from?” (May 1963), People’s Publishing House, page 12.

  5. 5.

    Wang Ruipu: “Zhongnanhai Three Generations of Leadership Collective and Economy Record of PRC”, page 710, Beijing, China Economic Publishing House, 1998.

  6. 6.

    “Innovative Green Beijing Practice, First Achieve Green Modernization” (November 17, 2009), National Conditions Report, Issue 33, 2009.

  7. 7.

    The Beijing Olympic Games are “truly exceptional Games,” said International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Jacques Rogge at the Games’ closing ceremony staged in the National Stadium in north Beijing on Sunday night.

  8. 8.

    Liu Qi: “Build Humanistic Beijing, Hi-tech Beijing and Green Beijing,” Qiushi, December 1, 2008.

  9. 9.

    IOC President Jacques Rogge thought that the Beijing Olympic Games were “truly exceptional Games.” International Paralympic Committee President Philip Craven believed that the Beijing Paralympic Games were “the greatest Paralympic Games.”

  10. 10.

    Research based on scientific outlook on development and economic sustainable development, Beijing Normal University: 2011 China Green Development IndexProvince Comparisons, Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publishing Group, Beijing Normal University Publishing House, October 2011.

  11. 11.

    Based on the green development index system of the report, in 55 basic indicators among three categories—green degree of economic growth, resources and environment carrying capacity, and government policy support (weighted respectively 30, 45, and 25 %)—Beijing ranked in no. 1, 12, and 1 in the three indicators, and it ultimately came top with a total score of 0.7917, followed by Qinghai, Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Hainan.

  12. 12.

    China Land and Resources Website: Beijing City Positioning and Development Goals.

  13. 13.

    In 1983, the central government approved the Beijing Urban Construction Main Plan.

  14. 14.

    In 1994, Beijing tertiary industry accounted for 46.99 % of GDP, higher than 39.56 % in Shanghai, with a difference of 7.43 %; in 2010, Beijing tertiary industry accounted for 75.11 % of GDP, higher than 57.28 % in Shanghai, with a difference of almost 20 %.

  15. 15.

    Electronic version of Beijing Statistical Yearbook 2011.

  16. 16.

    The data in this paragraph derive from the Major Infrastructure Development Plan during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan.

  17. 17.

    Beijing took the lead in implementing national vehicle IV emission standards and national vehicle fuel IV standards.

  18. 18.

    In the 7 years of preparation for the Olympic Games, the urban green space in Beijing increased by over 10,000 ha, and this achieved the target of creating visible green parks every 500 m. The greening rate for main roads and rivers reached 100 % and landscape levels were increased substantially for more than 500 roads. The green area per capita amounted to 48 m2, and the public green space per capita was 12.6 m2. In the suburbs, the area of total new afforestation increased by 154,100 ha. The Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Project achieved an afforestation area of 255,200 ha, with 22 million trees having been planted on a voluntary basis over the 7-year period, which is equivalent to creating 15 new Summer Palaces.

  19. 19.

    Hu An-gang: “True Knowledge Comes from the Practice and Innovation from Local Areas,” National Conditions Report, Issue 22, 2010.

  20. 20.

    Historically, Chongqing, one of three “stoves” of the Yangzi River, has up to 49 days of extreme climate with over 40 °C.

  21. 21.

    Hu An-gang: “Recommendations on the Establishment of a National Ecological Security Fund: Take Qinghai Source of the Three Rivers as an Example”, 19 of 2009.

  22. 22.

    In Qinghai, grassland areas amounted to 40.38 million ha in 2004, accounting for 10.10 % of the total for China. Except for the higher proportion of lamb products, the other livestock production account for a relatively small proportion. In 2006, milk production in Qinghai accounted for 0.81 % of that for China, while mutton production accounted for 2.04 %, beef for 1.03 % (see National Bureau of Statistics, China Statistical Abstract 2007, page 139, 2007). This reflects the very low livestock production grassland area per unit, and this is still at the stage of a traditional livestock industry.

  23. 23.

    Qinghai is the only province with large resource reserves but a low resource product yield. In 2006, in Qinghai, the output of raw coal accounted for 0.26 % of that for China as a whole, crude oil production accounted for 1.21 % and electricity generation accounting for 0.98 % (see National Bureau of Statistics, China Statistical Abstract 2007, page 144, 2007). Only the output of individual resource-based products accounted for a higher proportion.

  24. 24.

    Qinghai Bureau of Statistics, Hou Bibo: “Continue to Adjust and Optimize the Economic Structure in Qinghai,” Qinghai Statistical Information Network.

  25. 25.

    Qinghai GDP is proportionally about 0.3 % of that of all China.

  26. 26.

    Qiang Wei: “Ecological Province to Benefit Children and Grandchildren,” Qinghai Daily.

  27. 27.

    Ecological poverty is the poverty of the living environment. According to definition, deterioration in the ecological environment brings about a reduction in its capacity to meet the basic needs for survival and reproduction of the people living in a region. Or owing to deterioration natural conditions or natural disasters, people’s basic living and production conditions are reduced; these factors include poverty of the climate and of resources.

  28. 28.

    China Development Research Foundation: Building and Development of a Social Welfare System Shared by the People, Beijing, China Development Publishing House, 2009, page 82.

  29. 29.

    This can be calculated using drinking water and hydroelectric power generation value as the basis.

  30. 30.

    Ecological products refer to natural elements to maintain ecological security, protect ecological adjustment function, and provide a good living environment, including clean air, clean water, a comfortable environment and pleasant climate. Eco-products, like agricultural, industrial, and service products, are all the necessary products for human survival and development. The main functions of ecological regions to provide ecological products are as follows: carbon dioxide, oxygen, water conservation, soil and water conservation, water purification, sand-fixing, climate regulation, clean air, noise reduction, adsorption and dust, protect biodiversity, and mitigating floods.

  31. 31.

    Mao Zedong pointed out, “We must not only put forward the task, but solve it. Our mission is to cross the river, but we cannot cross the river without a bridge or boat; crossing the river is an empty act. If we do not solve the methodological issues, the task is useless.” Mao Zedong: To Pay Attention to Work Methods in Caring for People (January 27, 1934), Selected Works, Volume 1, page 134.

  32. 32.

    Mao Zedong Selected Works, Vol. 7, Beijing: People’s Publishing, House, 1999: 31.

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Correspondence to Angang Hu .

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Hu, A. (2017). Local Green Practice. In: China: Innovative Green Development. Springer, Singapore.

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