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Green Development Plan

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China has developed its Five-Year Plans since 1953, the plans initially having been modeled on those of the Soviet Union. China has developed and completed 11 Five-Year Plans since that time, and formulated and implemented the Twelfth Five-Year Plan in 2011. Following China’s reform and opening-up, its Five-Year Plans have gradually transformed into strategic plans.


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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-2806-9_5
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  1. 1.

    Mao Zedong: comment on “The Long-Range Plan of the Red Star Collective Farm”; see Mao Zedong’s Presentation Since the Founding of New China, fifth volume, Beijing, Central Literature Publishing House, 1998: 503.

  2. 2.

    On behalf of the early warning group of the Ecological Environment Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Science, the author, Wang Yi and Niu Wenyuan jointly wrote “The Ecological Deficit: the Biggest Survival Crisis for China in the Future—Analysis of Ecological and Environmental Conditions” in August 1989, and it was published in the Chinese science publication National Conditions and Decision-Making, page 190, Beijing, Beijing Press, 1990.

  3. 3.

    Deng Xiaoping: Talking Points in Wuchang, Shenzhen, Shanghai and Other Places (January 18, 1992—February 21, 1992), vol 3, page 373, Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1993.

  4. 4.

    Eleventh Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of PRC (2006–2010) (March 2006).

  5. 5.

    Hu An-gang, Yan Yilong, and Lu Jie “From an Economic Instruction Program to Strategic Planning: Transformation of the Five-Year Plan” (1953–2009), China Soft Science, 8 issue, 2010, page 14–24.

  6. 6.

    Premier Zhao Ziyang described the main points of the Sixth Five-Year Plan at the fifth session of the National People’s Congress. He stressed that “under the premise of improving economic efficiency, one of our important principles is to maintain industry and agriculture at an appropriate development pace.” (Zhao Ziyang, report on the Sixth Five-Year Plan, the Office of NPC financial and Economic Committee, Development and Planning Agency of the National Development and Reform Commission, 2008: 376).

  7. 7.

    According to an evaluation by the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the total carbon stock of forest vegetation in China amounted to 7.811 billion tons. Water conservation in forest ecosystems amounted to 494.766 billion m3; this saved 7.035 billion tons of soil and 364 million tons of fertilizer; the annual absorption of air pollutants amounted to 032 million tons, and there were 5.001 billion tons of dust. Jia Zhibang, November 17, 2009.

  8. 8.

    See Chap. 48 of the Eleventh Five-Year (2006–2010) Plan for National Economic and Social Development of PRC by National People’s Congress on March 4, 2006.

  9. 9.

    Premier Wen Jiabao stated at the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (Draft) that “the outline puts forward the aims of decreasing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20 % and reducing the total discharge of major pollutants by 10 %. This was proposed to address the acute problem of mounting pressure on resources and the environment, and it reflects the requirement of saving resources and achieving an environment-friendly society. It is also appropriate in terms of current and long-term interests by providing clear policy guidance. Although it is very difficult to achieve this goal, we have the confidence and determination to make it succeed.” Wen Jiabao: “Report on the Work of the Government in 2006,” which appeared in Compilation of Important Documents for National Economic and Social Development of the Five-Year Plan since the Founding of New China prepared by the office of NPC Financial and Economic Committee, Development and Planning Division of National Development and Reform Commission, page 18, Beijing, China’s Democracy and Legal System Publishing House.

  10. 10.

    Nicholas Stern made the comments on October 31, 2010 at the Summit of the Shanghai World Expo.

  11. 11.

    Zhang Ping: “Introduction to the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of PRC”, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, April 2011.

  12. 12.

    Zhang Ping: Introduction to the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of PRC, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, April 2011.

  13. 13.

    The Eleventh Five-Year Plan states in the last chapter of section 6 that it will promote rational use of marine and climate resources.

  14. 14.

    “One World” refers to China as a part of the world and the fact that the world needs China as never before. “One Dream” refers to China’s world dream of actively responding to global climate change and stabilizing the global climate so that average global temperature will not rise above 2 °C compared with levels in the pre-industrial period. “One Action” refers to achieving common emissions reduction along with the rest of the world, taking the lead in emissions reduction, and undertaking measurable, reportable, and verifiable actions in a spirit of information transparency so that the world at large can properly understand the stringent emission reduction actions made by China.

  15. 15.

    National Main Functional Area Plan, December 21, 2010.

  16. 16.

    Zhang Ping: Introduction to Twelfth Five-Year Plan of PRC, page 514, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, April 2011.

  17. 17.

    Chapter 20 of the Outline made the following statement: “According to resource and environment carrying capacity, existing development density, and development potential, coordination efforts will take into consideration China’s future population distribution, economic layout, land use, and urbanization patterns and divide the land space into four types, such as optimized, key, restricted, and prohibited-development areas”.

  18. 18.

    National Main Functional Area Plan, December 21, 2010.

  19. 19.

    Chen Deming, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission, pointed out at a meeting in Huizhou in May 2007 that promotion of the formation of main functional areas was “to implement a scientific outlook on development, coordinate urban and rural development, regional development and harmonious development of human and nature, and it is related to the overall situation of China’s economic and social development and long-term development of the Chinese nation.” See Chen Deming: “Comprehensively Implement Scientific Outlook of Development, and Push Forward National Main Functional Areas Plan Work”, China Economic Herald, June 30, 2007.

  20. 20.

    Ma Kai: “Implementation of the Strategy of Main Functional Areas and Scientific Development of Our Homeland”, September 1, 2011.

  21. 21.

    Human needs include the demand for agricultural, industrial, and service products as well as for fresh air, clean water, a good climate, and other ecological products. See National Main Functional Areas Plan, December 21, 2010.

  22. 22.

    Protection and expansion of nature’s ability to provide ecological products also adds to the value-creation process, and protection of ecological environment and provision of ecological products are part of development. See National Main Functional Areas Plan, December 21, 2010.

  23. 23.

    Overall, China has a rapidly increasing ability to provide industrial products but a weakening ability to provide ecological products; with the improvement in living standards, the demand for ecological products will continue to rise. Therefore, we must consider ecological products as an important part of development, and regard enhancement of ecological production capacity as an important task in national spatial development. See National Main Functional Areas Plan, December 21, 2010.

  24. 24.

    National prohibited-development areas refer to the natural concentrated region of natural ecosystem and rare and endangered wildlife species, natural heritage sites and cultural sites of special value; in these areas, industrialization and urbanization are prohibited, and instead the emphasis is on key ecological functions as part of national spatial development. As defined by laws, regulations, and other provisions, there are 1443 prohibited-development areas, with a total area of approximately 1.2 million km2, which amounts to 12.5 % of China’s land area. In the future, newly established national nature reserves, world cultural and natural heritage sites, national scenic spots, national forest parks, and national geological parks will automatically join the list of national prohibited-development areas. Main Functional Area Plan (December 21, 2010).

  25. 25.

    Main Functional Area Plan, December 21, 2010.

  26. 26.

    Wen Jiabao: “See China in the light of her development”. Speech at Cambridge University, February 2, 2009.

  27. 27.

    China promotes low carbon growth “from the bottom up,” Voice of America, 2010, March 29, 2011, Beijing.

  28. 28.

  29. 29.

    Wen Kai, director of Asia-Pacific Agency of World Bank Group Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) said that the “China model” has four system advantages, and the important one is the government’s willingness and ability to plan an intervention in economic affairs. See Chinese Edition of the Wall Street Journal.

  30. 30.

    The famous economist and Nobel Prize winner Joseph Stiglitz said: “What we measure determines the direction we develop.” See the book “Mismeasuring Our Lives: Why GDP Doesn’t Add Up”, Beijing: Xinhua Publishing House, January 2011, by Joseph Stiglitz.

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Correspondence to Angang Hu .

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Hu, A. (2017). Green Development Plan. In: China: Innovative Green Development. Springer, Singapore.

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