Advertisement

Discussion, Implication, and Conclusion

  • Atefeh AhmadiEmail author
Chapter
  • 347 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research book series (BRIEFSWELLBEING)

Abstract

This chapter discussed organizational environment, entrance into a new challenging organization and physical and psychological status could lead to low level of mindfulness among the participants. Interestingly, subject of study besides different type of contents, had lower impact than individual characteristics on the mindfulness. Implications of the study for universities, students and researcher were stated. Recommandations for governmental policies, body of knowledge, and theory developing as well as work of practitionnaires was in parallel with discussed issues.

Keywords

Discussion Recommendation Implication Limitation 

References

  1. Baer, R. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, R. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and none meditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342. Google Scholar
  3. Baer, R. A. (Ed.). (2015). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. United States: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, R., Smith, G., & Allen, K. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assess, 11, 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauchemin, J., Hutchins, T. L., & Patterson, F. (2008). Mindfulness meditation may lessen anxiety, promote social skills, and improve academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 34–45. Google Scholar
  6. Beitel, M., Ferrer, E., & Cecero, J. J. (2005). Psychological mindedness and awareness of self and others. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 739–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: Existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowlin, S. L., & Baer, R. A. (2012). Relationships between mindfulness, self-control, and psychological functioning. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promises in defining and measuring mindfulness: Observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248.Google Scholar
  11. Burke, C. A. (2010). Mindfulness-based approaches with children and adolescents: A preliminary review of current research in an emergent field. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caldwell, J. G., & Shaver, P. R. (2015). Promoting attachment-related mindfulness and compassion: A wait-list-controlled study of women who were mistreated during childhood. Mindfulness, 6(3), 624–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 187(3), 441–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Hargus, E., Winder, R., & Amarasinghe, M. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crane, R. S., & Kuyken, W. (2013). The implementation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Learning from the UK health service experience. Mindfulness, 4(3), 246–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cresswell, D., David, C., Baldwin, M., Naomi, I., & Matthio, D. (2007). Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F. … Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic medicine, 65(4), 564–570.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, D. J. (2014). Mindfulness in higher education: Teaching, learning, and leadership. International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society, 4(3).Google Scholar
  19. Dundas, I., Vøllestad, J., Binder, P. E., & Sivertsen, B. (2013). The five factor mindfulness questionnaire in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(3), 250–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Englund-Helmeke., Shawn R. (2014). Mindfulness and Well-Being. Master of social work clinical research papers. Paper 313. http://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/313
  21. Farb, N. A., Segal, Z. V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., et al. (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 313–322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the cognitive and affective mindfulness scale-revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177–190.Google Scholar
  23. Fjorback, L., Ørnbøl, E., Rehfeld, E., Arendt, M., Fink, P., & Schröder, A. (2011). Mindfulness therapy for bodily distress syndrome—A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Google Scholar
  24. Franco, C., Mañas, I., Cangas, A., & Gallego, J. (2010). The applications of mindfulness with students of secondary school: Results on the academic performance. Self-concept and Anxiety, 1(3), 83–97.Google Scholar
  25. Germer, C. K., Siegel, R., & Fulton, P. (2005). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Goldstein, J. (2002). One dharma: The emerging western Buddhism. New York: Harper San Francisco.Google Scholar
  27. Griffiths, K., Camic, P. M., & Hutton, J. M. (2009). Participant experiences of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group for cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(5), 675–681. doi: 10.1177/1359105309104911 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grossman, P., Neimann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halland, E., de Vibe, M., Solhaug, I., Friborg, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., Tyssen, R. … Bjørndal, A. (2015). Mindfulness training improves problem-focused coping in psychology and medical students: results from a randomized controlled trial. College Student Journal, 49(3), 387–398.Google Scholar
  30. Hart, T., Whyte, J., Kim, J., & Vaccaro, M. (2005). Executive function and self-awareness of “real-world” behavior and attention deficits following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(4), 333–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hill, S. S. (1973). Sociology of religion. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 41(3), 447–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hindman, R. K., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B., & Maron, D. D. (2015). A comparison of formal and informal mindfulness programs for stress reduction in university students. Mindfulness, 6(4), 873–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoy, W. K., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). The conceptualization and measurement of faculty trust in schools. Essential ideas for the reform of American schools, 87–114.Google Scholar
  35. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.Google Scholar
  36. Keng, S., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006 Google Scholar
  37. Koenig, H. G. (2008). Concerns about measuring “spirituality” in research. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(5), 349–355. doi: 10.1097/NMD.1090b1013e31816ff31796 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Korotitsch, W. J., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (1999). An overview of self monitoring research in assessment and treatment. Psychological Assessment, 11, 415–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Langer, E. J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2000). The construct of mindfulness. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Langer, E. J., & Piper, A. I. (1987). The prevention of mindlessness. Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ludwig, D. S., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Mindfulness in medicine. American Medical Association, 300(11), 1350–1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lykins, E. L., & Baer, R. A. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 226–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynch, S., Gander, M. L., Kohls, N., Kudielka, B., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness based coping with university life: A non-randomized wait-list-controlled pilot evaluation. Stress and Health, 27(5), 365–375.Google Scholar
  44. Mars, T. S., & Abbey, H. (2010). Mindfulness meditation practise as a healthcare intervention: A systematic review. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 13(2), 56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mey, S. C., & Yin, C. J. (2015). Mental health and wellbeing of the undergraduate students in a research university: a malaysian experience. Social Indicators Research, 122(2), 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Napoli, M. (2010). Tools for mindful living: Steppingstones for practice. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Napoli, M., & Bonifas, R. P. (2011). From theory toward empathic self care: Creating a mindful classroom for social work students. Social Work Education: An International Journal, 30, 635–649.Google Scholar
  48. Napoli, M., & Roe, S. (2008). Life by personal design: Limitless horizons. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Palmer, A., & Rodger, S. (2009). Mindfulness, stress, and coping among university students. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 43(3), 198.Google Scholar
  50. Pico-Alfonso, A., Mastorci, F., Ceresini, G., Ceda, M., Ghi, M., Pino, O., et al. (2007). Acute psychosocial challenge and cardiac autonomic response in women: The role of estrogens, corticosteroids, and behavioral coping styles. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 451–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Raes, F., Griffith, J. W., Van der Gucht, K., & Williams, J. M. G. (2014). School-based prevention and reduction of depression in adolescents: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness group program. Mindfulness, 5(5), 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rapgay, L., & Bystrisky, A. (2009). Classical mindfulness: An introduction to its theory and practice for clinical application. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 148–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ruff, M., & Elizabeth, R. (2009). The role of mindfulness in healthcare reform: A policy paper. 313–323 (Mackenzie, Guest Editorial).Google Scholar
  54. Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Levin, Z. E. (Eds.). (2007). Kaplan and Sadock’s study guide and self-examination review in psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  55. Sauer, S. et al. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3–17.Google Scholar
  56. Schmertz, S. (2008). Rumination as a mediator of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety in a clinical sample. Dissertation. Georgia State University.Google Scholar
  57. Shapiro, S., Oman, D., Thoresen, C., Plante, T., & Flinders, T. (2008). Cultivating mindfulness: Effects on well-being. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 64(840–862), 67.Google Scholar
  58. Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Soysa, C. K., & Wilcomb, C. J. (2015). Mindfulness, self-compassion, self-efficacy, and gender as predictors of depression, anxiety, stress, and well-being. Mindfulness, 6(2), 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q. … Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(43), 17152–17156.Google Scholar
  61. Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Troy, A. S., Shallcross, A. J., Davis, T. S., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). History of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is associated with increased cognitive reappraisal ability. Mindfulness, 4(3), 213–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the mindful attention awareness scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(7), 805–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Walach, H., Ferrari, M. L. G., Sauer, S., & Kohls, N. (2012). Mind-body practices in integrative medicine. Religions, 3(1), 50–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walker, C. M. (2011). What’s the DIF? Why differential item functioning analyses are an important part of instrument development and validation. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29, 364–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and western psychology: A mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61(3), 227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Weick, K. E., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2001). Managing the unexpected.Google Scholar
  68. Williams, M. J., McManus, F., Muse, K., & Williams, J. M. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis): An interpretative phenomenological analysis of patients’ experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 379–397.Google Scholar
  69. Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(2), 597–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Nursing and MidwiferyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran

Personalised recommendations