• Bum Soo KimEmail author
  • Hyun Tae Kim


The kidney is a vital organ which plays various important roles in humans’ body, including excretion of waste products, production of erythropoietin, and maintenance of systemic blood pressure through regulation of fluid volume and electrolytes. The nephrons, which are the functional units of the kidney, maintain these renal functions. Specific conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, glomerulonephritis, and nephrotoxic drugs, can cause the damage of nephrons, and if damages persist to progress, renal function gradually deteriorates, and the kidney finally enters the state of renal failure.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, School of MedicineKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

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