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WTO, State and Legal Capacity Building

An Indian Narrative

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Judging the State in International Trade and Investment Law

Part of the book series: International Law and the Global South ((ILGS))

Abstract

This chapter examines the background and the key WTO disputes which triggered a policy shift in India towards the State playing a more proactive role in encouraging the building of trade-related legal capacity. The chapter examines the features of the unique trade-related capacity model chosen by India and how it differs from the alternate models established by other major developing countries that have an active profile in WTO dispute settlement. The chapter explores how the Indian model is more geared towards hybrid policy making in contrast to alternative trade-related legal capacity models employed by other WTO Members.

Associate Professor, Jindal Global Law School, O.P. Jindal Global University and Executive Director, Centre for International Trade and Economic Laws (CITEL).

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Notes

  1. 1.

    M Wolf, India in the World. In Acharya S & Mohan R (eds) India’s Economy: Performance and Challenges. (Oxford University Press, London, 2011).

  2. 2.

    A Santos, Carving out Policy Autonomy for Developing Countries in the World Trade Organization: The Experience of Brazil and Mexico. 52(3) Virginia J Intl Law (2012) 551–632.

  3. 3.

    D Trubek, Reversal of Fortune? International Economic Governance, Alternative Development Strategies, and the Rise of BRICS (2013) <http://law.wisc.edu/facstaff/trubek/eui_paper_final_june_2012.pdf>.

  4. 4.

    Ministry of Finance, Annual Economic Survey of India (2016).

  5. 5.

    M Wu, “Antidumping in Asia’s Emerging Giants,” 53(1) Harvard J Intl Law (2012) 1–84.

  6. 6.

    WTO (2013) Public Stockholding for Food Security Purposes: Ministerial Decision, WT/MIN(13)/38, WT/L/913; WTO (2002) Waiver Concerning Kimberly Process Certification Scheme for Rough Diamonds: Communication from Canada, Japan and Sierra Leone, G/C/W/432.

  7. 7.

    WTO, China – Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products, WT/DS363.

  8. 8.

    WTO, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, WT/DS 412 and WT/DS 426.

  9. 9.

    WTO, Brazil – Export Financing Programme for Aircraft, WT/DS46.

  10. 10.

    R Kher, India’s Trade Disputes: Implications for Public Policy, in, A Das & JJ Nedumpara (eds) WTO Dispute Settlement at Twenty: Insiders’ Reflections on India’s Participation (Springer, Singapore 2016) 21, 27–28; L Rubini, Ain’t Wastin’ Time No Mote: Subsidies for Renewable Energy, the SCM Agreement, Policy Space, and Law Reform. 15 Journal of International Economic Law (2012); M Wu & J Salzman (2014) The Next Generation of Trade and Environnment Conflicts: The Rise of Green Industrial Policy. 108(2) Northwestern University Law Review (2014) 401.

  11. 11.

    Trubek et al. (eds), Law and the New Developmental State: The Brazilian Experience in Latin American Context (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2014).

  12. 12.

    JJ Nedumpara, South Asia and WTO Dispute Settlement, SAWTEE Publication (2007) <http://www.sawtee.org/publications/Discussion-Paper-8.pdf>; JJ Nedumpara, Naming, Shaming and Filing: Harnessing India’s Capacity for WTO Dispute Settlement. 5(1) Trade L & Dev (2013) 68–105.

  13. 13.

    Shaffer G et al., State Transformation and the Role of Lawyers: The WTO, India and Transnational Legal Ordering, 49(3) Law & Soc’y Rev (2015) 595–629.

  14. 14.

    Ibid.

  15. 15.

    JH Weiler, The Future of International Trade Disciplines, in, Bethlehem et al. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (Oxford University Press, New York, 2009) 749–772.

  16. 16.

    Jawaharlal Nehru’s Speeches, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India (1983).

  17. 17.

    NIEO movement was based on the theory of “structuralism,” which called for a reorientation in international economic order to correct deep imbalances between developed and developing countries that would, if uncorrected, deepen underdevelopment and poverty.

  18. 18.

    Noting that inflation rose 13.7 during this period.

  19. 19.

    Maran Sets Up a “War Room” for Import Surge, Indian Express (1 April 2001). Accessed at: http://expressindia.indianexpress.com/fe/daily/20010401/fec01027.html.

  20. 20.

    C Thomas, Balance-of-Payment Crisis in the Developing World: Balancing, Trade, Finance and Development in the New Economic Order, 15 American U Intl L Rev. (2000) 1249, 1270.

  21. 21.

    WTO, India – Measures Affecting the Automotive Sector, WT/DS146.

  22. 22.

    Ibid.

  23. 23.

    WTO, India – Quantitative Restrictions on Imports of Agricultural, Textile and Industrial Products, WT/DS90.

  24. 24.

    R Kher, India’s Trade Disputes: Implications for Public Policy, in, A Das & JJ Nedumpara (eds) WTO Dispute Settlement at Twenty: Insiders’ Reflections on India’s Participation (Springer, Singapore, 2016).

  25. 25.

    Ibid.

  26. 26.

    Supra note 8.

  27. 27.

    M Papa, Emerging Powers in International Dispute Settlement: From Legal Capacity Building to a Level Playing Field? 3(3) J Intl Dispute Settlement (2012).

  28. 28.

    Supra note 3.

  29. 29.

    A Das and JJ Nedumpara (eds), WTO Dispute Settlement at Twenty: Insiders’ Reflections on India’s Participation (Springer, Singapore 2016).

  30. 30.

    One of the outstanding issues is whether zeroing is permitted in the case of targeted dumping which involves comparison of weighted average normal value with individual export transactions especially when the “pattern” of prices differ depending on the region, time period, or customers.

  31. 31.

    S Rajagopal, Recollections and Reflections of a Stakeholder in WTO Disputes, in, A Das and JJ Nedumpara (eds) WTO Dispute Settlement at Twenty: Insiders’ Reflections on India’s Participation (Springer, Singapore, 2016).

  32. 32.

    WTO, United States, Customs Bond Directive for Merchandise Subject to Anti-Dumping/Countervailing Duties, WT/DS345.

  33. 33.

    B Battacharya, The Indian Shrimp Industry Organizes to Fight the Threat of Anti-Dumping Action (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005) 241.

  34. 34.

    SEAI, 40th Annual Report of the Seafood Exporter’s Association 2009–10.

  35. 35.

    WTO, India – Measures Concerning the Importation of Certain Agricultural Products, WT/DS430.

  36. 36.

    Ibid.

  37. 37.

    Ibid.

  38. 38.

    Supra note 3.

  39. 39.

    Mani Muthukumara, Creating Incentives for Clean Technology Trade, Transfer, and Diffusion: The Role of Non-distorting Policies (2010) <http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/climate_jun10_e/background_paper2_e.pdf>. Accessed on 20 Jan 2016.

  40. 40.

    WTO, India – Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules, WT/DS456.

  41. 41.

    WTO, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, WT/DS412.

  42. 42.

    Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Government of India) JJNSM Solar Mission – Schemes/Documents <http://www.mnre.gov.in/solar-mission/jnnsm/introduction-2/>.

  43. 43.

    The panel report in this case was issued on 24 February 2016. See, WTO (2016) India – Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules, WT/DS456.

  44. 44.

    G Shrimali & S Anshuman, Has India’s Solar Mission Increased the Deployment of Domestically Produced Solar Modules, 69 Energy Policy (2014) 501–509.

  45. 45.

    L Choukroune, China and the WTO Dispute System: The Global Trade Lawyer and the State Capitalist. 49(1) China Perspectives (2012).

  46. 46.

    WTO (2016) Dispute Settlement Gateway <https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_status_e.htm>. Accessed 10 March 2016.

  47. 47.

    Ewing-Chow et al. have highlighted the high legal costs in some of the recent WTO disputes. Based on certain online reports it is mentioned that Canada had to spend nearly US $9 million in order to challenge the European Regulation in ECSeal restricting the importation of seal and seal products into the European Union.

  48. 48.

    Ewing-Chow et al., Are Asian WTO Members Using the WTO DSU “Effectively”?, 16(3) J Intl Econ L (2013) 669, 684.

  49. 49.

    JJ Nedumpara, Food Security, and the Bali Ministerial: Interviews with Trade Policy Experts in India, 10(2) Global Trade and Customs Journal (2015) 177–181.

  50. 50.

    Supra note, 9.

  51. 51.

    WTO, India – Additional and Extra-Additional Duties on Imports from the United States, WT/DS360.

  52. 52.

    Ibid.

  53. 53.

    WTO, European Union and a Member State–Seizure of Generic Drugs in Transit, WT/DS408.

  54. 54.

    WTO, Turkey – Safeguard Measures on Imports of Cotton Yarn (Other Than Sewing Thread), WT/DS428.

  55. 55.

    Among these disputes only in ECDrug Seizure did the MOCI engage an international trade expert. Professor Frederick Abbot was consulted by the Indian government along with Krishnan Venugopal, an Indian attorney.

  56. 56.

    Supra note 27.

  57. 57.

    R Glezer et al., Transforming Legal Capacity in Brazil: International Trade Law and the Myth of a Booming Practice. Program on Legal Profession, Harvard Law School (2015) <https://clp.law.harvard.edu/assets/Panel-3-Legal-Capacity.pdf>.

  58. 58.

    G Shaffer et al., The Trials of Wining at the WTO: What Lies Behind Brazil’s Success. 41(2) Cornell J Intl Law (2008) 383–501.

  59. 59.

    WTO, United States – Subsidies on Upland Cotton, WT/DS267.

  60. 60.

    WTO, European Communities – Export Subsidies on Sugar, WT/DS265.

  61. 61.

    Sidley, A Conversation with Scott Anderson of Sidley's Geneva Office <http://www.sidley.com/sidley-pages/conversations/a-conversation-with-scott-andersen>.

  62. 62.

    WTO, Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreated Tyres, WT/DS332.

  63. 63.

    Michelle Ratton Sanchez Badin, Developmental Responses to the International Trade Legal Game: Cases of Intellectual Property and Export Credit Law Reforms, in Trubek et al. (eds) Brazil in Law and the New Developmental State (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2014) 246–300; A. Santos, Carving out Policy Autonomy for Developing Countries in the World Trade Organization: The Experience of Brazil and Mexico. 52(3) Virginia J Intl Law (2012) 551–632.

  64. 64.

    WTO, China Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights, WT/DS362; WTO, United States – Countervailing and Anti-dumping Measures on Certain Products from China, WT/DS449.

  65. 65.

    WTO, Argentina – Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods, WT/DS438; WTO, China – Measures Affecting Imports of Automobile Parts, WT/DS339; WTO, United States – Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China, WT/DS379.

  66. 66.

    WTO, European Union – Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Footwear from China, WT/DS405.

  67. 67.

    WTO, China – Certain Measures Granting Refunds or Exceptions from Taxes and Other Payments, WT/DS358. WT/DS359.

  68. 68.

    WTO, Mexico – Definitive Anti-Dumping Measures on Beef and Rice, WT/DS295; WTO, United States – Anti-Dumping Measures on Cement from Mexico, DS281; WTO, European Communities – Provisional Safeguard Measures on Imports of Certain Steel Products, WT/DS260; WTO, Mexico – Anti-Dumping Investigation of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) from the United States, DS132.

  69. 69.

    Represented Argentina in WTO, United States – Sunset Reviews of Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods from Argentina, WT/DS268; Advised Mexico in Guatemala – Anti-dumping Investigation Regarding Portland Cement from Mexico, WT/DS60; Represented Mexico in WTO, United States – Anti-Dumping Measures on Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) from Mexico, WT/DS282.

  70. 70.

    Legally India, Lakshmikumaran goes global: Opens full-time Geneva office to tap developing world’s WTO work <http://www.legallyindia.com/201409085028/Law-firms/lks-opens-consultancy-firm-in-geneva>.

  71. 71.

    Supra note 27.

  72. 72.

    Centre for WTO Studies <http://wtocentre.iift.ac.in/work.asp>.

  73. 73.

    WTO, United States – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS58/R.

  74. 74.

    WTO, European Communities – Anti-Dumping Duties on Imports of Cotton-Type Bed Linen from India, WT/DS141.

  75. 75.

    WTO, United States – Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Large Residential Washers from Korea, WT/DS 464.

  76. 76.

    WTO, Peru – Additional Duty on Imports of Certain Agricultural Products, WT/DS457.

  77. 77.

    Supra note 3.

  78. 78.

    Supra note 57.

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Nedumpara, J.J. (2016). WTO, State and Legal Capacity Building. In: Choukroune, L. (eds) Judging the State in International Trade and Investment Law. International Law and the Global South. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2360-6_3

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