\(atc\) | RMB | Accumulated total cost paid by the power sector over the planning horizon |

\(cec_{t,r}\) | RMB | Total CO_{2} emission cost paid (or profit gained) by the power sector in region *r* in year *t* |

\(er_{g,t,r}^{{t^{\prime}}}\) | kW | Early retiring capacity of power plants of type *g* (built in year *t*) in region *r* in year *t’* |

\(fc_{f,t,r}\) | RMB | Cost for fuel *f* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(fd_{f,t,r}^{g}\) | t(Nm^{3}) | Demand for fuel *f* by power plants of type *g* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(ic_{g,t,r}\) | kW | Installed capacity of power plants of type *g* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(idealtcrr_{{t,r,r^{\prime}}}\) | kWh | Ideal power transmission from region *r′* to region *r* in year *t* (regardless of transmission loss) |

\(idealtcrr_{{t,r,r^{\prime}}}^{s,l}\) | kWh | Ideal power transmission from region *r′* to region *r* during time block *l* in season *s*, in year *t* (regardless of transmission loss) |

\(inv_{g,t,r}^{nb,er}\) | RMB | Capital cost for construction of type *g* of power plants retired early in region *r* in year *t* |

\(inv_{g,t,r}^{nb,rf}\) | RMB | Capital cost for construction of type *g* of retrofitted plants in region *r* in year *t* |

\(inv_{g,t,r}^{nb,nr}\) | RMB | Capital cost for construction of type *g* of power plants retired at the end of expected lifetime in region *r* in year *t* |

\(inv_{g,t,r}^{nb}\) | RMB | Capital cost in region *r* in year *t* for building power plants of type *g* |

\(inv_{g,t,r}^{rf}\) | RMB | Capital cost in region *r* in year *t* for building power plants of Type *g* that are retrofitted with CCS |

\(lf_{r,g}^{s,l}\) | % | Load factors for power plants of type *g* during time block *l* in season *s*, in region *r* |

\(nb_{g,t,r}\) | kW | Newly built capacity of power plants of type *g* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(om_{g,t,r}\) | RMB | O and M cost of power plants of type *g* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(oh_{r,g,t}^{s,l}\) | h | Operational hours of power plants of type *g* during time block *l* in season *s*, in region *r* in year *t* |

\(pg_{r,g,t}\) | kWh | Power generation of power plants of type *g* in region *r* in year *t* |

\(pg_{r,g,t}^{s,l}\) | kWh | Power generation of power plants of type *g* during time block *l* in season *s*, in region *r* in year t |

\(ptrc_{t,r}\) | RMB | Total transmission cost paid by power sector in region *r* in year *t* |

\(rc_{t,r}\) | RMB | Total cost paid by the power sector in region *r* in year *t* |

\(rf_{g,t,r}^{{t^{\prime}}}\) | kW | Retrofitted capacity of power plants of type *g* (built in year *t*) in region *r* in year *t*′ |

\(rm_{g,t,r}^{{t^{\prime}}}\) | kW | Existing or left capacity of power plants of type *g* (built in year *t*) in region *r* in year *t*′ |

\(tc_{t,r}\) | kWh | Total power transmission into region *r* in year *t* |

\(tc_{t,r}^{s,l}\) | kWh | Total power transmission into region *r* during time block *l* in season *s* in year *t* |

\(tce_{t,r}\) | tCO_{2} | Total CO_{2} emissions by power sector in region *r* in year *t* |

\(tcrr_{{t,r,r^{\prime}}}\) | kWh | Actual power transmission from region *r′* to region *r* in year *t* (concerning transmission loss) |

\(tcrr_{t,r,r'}^{s,l}\) | kWh | Actual power transmission from region *r′* to region *r* during time block *l* in season *s* in year *t* (concerning transmission loss) |

\(tfc_{t,r}\) | RMB | Total fuel cost in region *r* in year *t* |

\(tfd_{f,t,r}\) | t(Nm^{3}) | Total demand for fuel *f* by power plants in region *r* in year *t* |

\(tin\nu_{t,r}^{nb}\) | RMB | Total capital cost for construction of all types of power plants in region *r* in year *t* |

\(tin\nu_{t,r}^{rf}\) | RMB | Total capital cost for retrofit of PC and IGCC in region *r* in year *t* |

\(tom_{t,r}\) | RMB | Total O and M cost of all types of power plants in region *r* in year *t* |