Advertisement

Institutional Changes and the Power of Chinese Medical Professionals

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter first demonstrates that in the Republic era the Chinese medical profession enjoyed significant professional autonomy and organizational power in their relationships with the state and could control its work and economic terms. During the pre-reform era between 1949 and 1978, the profession quickly lost its autonomy and organizational power and was nationalized and bureaucratized. Bureaucratic medicine, which featured impersonalism toward patients, permeated the healthcare system, despite the Party-state’s efforts to promote universal particularism and demand doctors to treat patients as families. The bureaucratic power of the doctor was further strengthened by shortage of quality services corollary to economical expansion of healthcare. To cope with bureaucracy and shortage, patients had to resort to particularism characteristic of the acquaintance society. Backdoor medicine became endemic.

Keywords

Traditional Chinese Medicine Sick Leave Medical Professional Cultural Revolution Private Practitioner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Anhui People’s Committee. 1958. Guanyu gaijin gongfei yiliao yufang guanli de guiding (Regulations about improving the management of the public medical insurance and prevention). Anhui zhengbao (Gazette of Anhui Government) 4: 8–9.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 1956a. Weisheng bu yanjiu jiangdi yiliao shoufei biaozhun (The Ministry of Health is studying the possibility of reducing medical service fees). Jiankang bao (Health News), 13 July, 1.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1956b. Zhonghua Yixuehui xishou dapi zhongyi ruhui (Chinese Medical Association absorb numerous TCM doctors). Jiankang bao (Health News), 17 July, 1.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1957. Xingtai shi yiyuan qin jian jian yuan reqing gao (Enthusiasm for building Xingtai Hospital with industry and thrift). Jiankang bao (Health News), 18 January, 1.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1958. Gedi jiangdi yiliao shoufei jianqing bingren fudan (Medical service fees are reduced in many places to relieve patients of their burdens). Jiankang bao (Health News), 9 August, 3.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1961a. Jianli jianquan yiliao zeren zhi (Establish and strengthen medical responsibility system). Jiankang bao (Health News), 2 September, 1.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1961b. QInjian ban yuan dali zhiyuan shengchan (Run the hospital with industry and thrift and support production vigorously). Jiankang bao (Health News), 14 June, 3.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 1966. Shandong Hubei Shanghai yi pi yiwu renyuan xiaxiang luohu (Medical personnel from Shandong, Hubei and Shanghai settled down in the countryside). Jiankang bao (Health News), 23 March, 1.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1969. Guangzhou shi Hongshu weisheng yuan yi hu renyuan gaibian yiliao zuofeng (Doctors and nurses of Guangzhou Red Book clinic changed their practices). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 13 January, 3.Google Scholar
  10. Bo, Yibo. 1991. Ruogan zhongda juece yu shijian de huigu (Review on several significant policies and events). 2 vols. Vol. 1. Beijing: Zhonggong Zhongyang Dangxiao Chubanshe (CCP Central School Press).Google Scholar
  11. Bonnin, Michel. 2013. The Lost Generation: The Rustification of China’s Educated Youth. Translated by Krystyna Horko. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cai, Renhua. 1981. “Zuo” de sixiang daozhi yiyuan yue ban yue qiong (The “leftist” thought makes hospitals poorer and poorer). Yiyuan guanli (Hospital management) 2: 50–52.Google Scholar
  13. Cai, Tianxin. 2003. Li Qinglin shang shu Mao Zedong yu zhiqing zhengce tiaozheng (Li Qinglin’s letter to Mao Zedong and the adjustment of the educated youth policies). Zhonggong dangshi yanjiu (CCP history study) 4: 30–35.Google Scholar
  14. CCP Central Committee. 1965. Zhonggong Zhongyang pi zhuan Weisheng Bu dang wei ‘guanyu ba weisheng gongzuo zhongdian fangdao nongcun de baogao’ (CCP Central Committee’s approval and circulation of the Ministry of Health’s ‘Report on placing the emphasis of health work in the countryside’). Accessed 12 January 2015. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2005-02/02/content_2538494.htm
  15. Chen, Mingyuan. 2006a. Zhishi fenzi yu Renminbi shidai (Intellectuals and the era of Renminbi). Shanghai: Wenhui Chubanshe (Wenhui Press).Google Scholar
  16. Chu, Anping. 1947. Zhongguo de zhengju (China’s political situation). Guancha (Observation) 2(2): 3–8.Google Scholar
  17. Croizier, Ralph C. 1965. Traditional medicine in Communist China: science, Communism and cultural nationalism. China Quarterly 23: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Daniel, Ann. 1990. Medicine and the state: Professional autonomy and public accountability. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, Deborah S. 2000. Social Class Transformation in Urban China: Training, Hiring, and Promoting Urban Professionals and Managers after 1949. Modern China 26(3) (July 2000):251–275.Google Scholar
  20. Editor. 1951. Preface. In Yiwu gongzuozhe de daolu (weisheng renyuan sixiang xuexi wenjian) [The path of medical workers (Ideological learning document for health personnel)]. Unkown: Unknown.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 1952. “Yiwu renyuan zhong yanzhong de bufu zeren de zuofeng bixu kefu (Medical personnel must overcome serious irresponsible practice in their work).” Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 18 June, 6.Google Scholar
  22. ———. 1955. Bixu jianjue fandui lanxing jiaban jiadian (Firmly oppose reckless overtime). Laodong (Labour) 12: 12.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 1956. Beijing shi renmin daibiao dahui weisheng gongzuo daibiao tichu zunzhong yiwu gongzuo zhe deng yijian (Health representatives of Beijing Municipal People’s Congress put forward such proposals as respecting medical workers). Jiankang bao (Health News), 21 August, 1.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 1957. Dui bingren duo zuoxie gongzuo (Do more work on patients). Jiankang bao (Health News), 11 January, 1.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1958. Shoudu yiwu jie gongchan zhuyi fengge zai chengzhang (Communist fashion is growing in the medical circles of the Capital). Jiankang bao (Health News), 16 July, 1.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1959. Jixu jiaqiang Dang dui yuyuan gongzuo de lingdao (Continuously strengthen the Party’s leadership in hospital work). Jiankang bao (Health News), 22 July, 1.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1965. Shehuizhuyi nongcun yiyuan yao zheyang de zhengguihua (Socialist rural hospital needs formalization like this). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 12 November, 1.Google Scholar
  28. Fan, Quan. 1960. Zuo xin xingshi zhong de xin yiwu gongzuo zhe (Become new medical workers in the new situation). Jiankang bao (Health News), 9 April, 7.Google Scholar
  29. Fei, Xiaotong, Gary G. Hamilton, and Wang Zheng. 1992. From the soil, the foundations of Chinese society: A translation of Fei Xiaotong’s Xiangtu Zhongguo, with an introduction and epilogue. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Feng, Junqi. 2010. Zhong xian ganbu (Cadres of Middle County). PhD, Department of Sociology, Beijing University.Google Scholar
  31. Field, Mark G. 1991. The hybrid profession: Soviet medicine. In Professions and the state: expertise and autonomy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, ed. Anthony Jones, 43–62. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Freidson, Eliot. 1970. Profession of medicine: a study of the sociology of applied knowledge. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Reprint, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. Gold, Thomas B. 1985. After comradeship: personal relations in China since the Cultural Revolution. The China Quarterly 104: 657–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Guan, Jian. 1958. Zhengzhi tongshuai jishu yiqie wei bingren (Politics command techniques; all for patients). Jiankang bao (Health News), 18 April, 1.Google Scholar
  35. Guo, Caixia. 2011. 20 shiji 50 niandai lianhe zhensuo shimo—yi Guangdong Sheng wei li (United clinics in the 1950s—A study of Guangdong Province). Master of Science, Medical History and Literature of TCM, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.Google Scholar
  36. Guo, Shaojun, and Shiqi Xiong. 1958. Da po “quanwei” he “dengji zhi” (Break “authoritativeness” and “hierarchy”). Jiankang bao (Health News), 15 November, 2.Google Scholar
  37. Harding, Harry. 1981. Organizing China: The problem of bureaucracy, 1949–1976. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. He, Caihuo. 1956. Jiaban jiadian de jiubing fufa (Overtime again). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 24 July, 2.Google Scholar
  39. He, Cheng. 1948 (1951). Dui jishu guandian de jiantao (Criticizing technical viewpoints). In Yiwu gongzuozhe de daolu (weisheng renyuan sixiang xuexi wenjian) [The path of medical workers (Ideological learning document for health personnel)], 49–61. Unknown: Unknown.Google Scholar
  40. ———. 1951a. Yiwu gongzuozhe de daolu (The path of medical workers). In Yiwu gongzuozhe de daolu (weisheng renyuan sixiang xuexi wenjian) [The path of medical workers (Ideological learning document for health personnel)], 42–48. Unknown: Unknown.Google Scholar
  41. ———. 1951b. Yong Mao Zhuxi de sixiang wuzhuang weisheng renyuan de tounao (Arm health workers’ brain with Chairman Mao’s thoughts). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 1(2): 3–5.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 1951c. Zai diyi jie quanguo weisheng gongzuo huiyi shang de zongjie baogao (Concluding report of the First National Health Conference). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 1(1): 8–15.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 1953. Guanyu weisheng renyuan xuexi yuandong de dongyuan baogao (Mobilization speech on health personnel study movement). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 2(4): 1–6.Google Scholar
  44. He, Juncai. 1966. Tuchu zhengzhi, wei geming ban yiliao weisheng shiye (Give prominence to politics and run healthcare for revolution). Guangdong yixue (Guangdong medicine) 4(2): 70–73.Google Scholar
  45. He, Qianqian. 2015. Xiaxiang na xie nian (The years in the countryside). Hong Kong: Guoshi Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  46. Henan Shan County Health Office, and Henan Shan Country Bureau of Finance. 1965. Shan xian gongfei yiliao guanli gongzuo de ji dian jingyan (Lessons from the management of the public medical insurance in Shan County). Caizheng (Finance) 7: 17–19.Google Scholar
  47. Herzfeld, Michael. 1993. The social production of indifference: exploring the symbolic roots of Western bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hu, Bicheng. 1956. Jingren de jiaban jiadian (Astonishing overtime). Laodong (Labour) 8: 55.Google Scholar
  49. Hu, Yi. 2011. Song yi xia xiang: xiandai Zhongguo de jibing zhengzhi (Sending medicine to the countryside: The disease politics of modern China), New Sociology Series. Beijing: Shehui Kexue Chubanshe (Social Science Publishing House).Google Scholar
  50. Huang, Yun. 1957. Dangqian gongfei yiliao jingfei guanli zhong de wenti he gaijin yijian (Current problems of public medical insurance fund management and suggestions for improvement). Caizheng (Finance) 3: 13–15.Google Scholar
  51. Hubei Local History Compiling Committee. 2000. Hubei Provincial Annals: Health Vol. 1. Wuhan: Hubei Renmin Chubanshe (Hubei People’s Publishing House).Google Scholar
  52. Hunan People’s Committee. 1957. Hunan sheng renmin weiyuanhui pizhuan weisheng ting ‘guanyu gongfei yiliao jingfei yanzhong chaozhi qingkuang ji jiejue yijian de baogao’ de tongzhi (Hunan People’s Committee’s notice of approving and circulating the Health Department’s ‘Report on the situation of considerable overspending of the public medical insurance fund and suggested solutions’). Hunan zhengbao (Gazette of Hunan Government) 11: 367–368.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 1963. Hunan sheng remin weiyuanhui pi zhuan weisheng ting guanyu Hunan Sheng ganbu yiliao wenti de ruogan yijian (Hunan People’s Committee approves and circulates the Health Department’s suggestions on cadre medical (insurance) issues in Hunan Province). Hunan zhengbao (Gazette of Hunan Government) 9: 184–186.Google Scholar
  54. Ji, Ji. 1961. Gaijin yiyuan gongzuo tigao yiliao zhiliang (Improve hospital work and the quality of medical services). Jiankang bao (Health News), 30 August, 1.Google Scholar
  55. Jia, Wenjuan. 2012. Cong reqing laodong dao nongxu zuojia: “Dayuejin” qian hou richang shengchan zhong de guojia kongzhi yu jiceng shijian—yi dui Guangzhou TY chang de kaocha weili (1956–1965) (From working enthusiastically to cheating: state control and grass-roots practice in everyday production before and after the “Great Leap Forward”—A case study of Guangzhou TY Factory (1956–1965)). Kaifang shidai (Open Times) 10: 5–21.Google Scholar
  56. Jiangxi People’s Committee. 1956. Jiangxi sheng renmin weiyuanhui pi zhuang sheng weisheng ting ‘guanyu jiujiang zhuan shu ben nian shang ban nian gongfei yiliao yufang jingfei chaozhi wenti de jiancha baogao’ de tongzhi (Jiangxi People’s Committee’s notification of approving and circulating the Provincial Health Department’s ‘Report of investigation of overspending of the public medical insurance fund in Jiujiang Special District in the first half of the year’). Jiangxi zhengbao (Gazette of Jiangxi Government) 21: 41–45.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1957. Guanyu gaijin gongfei yiliao yufang gongzuo de yijian de pifu (Reply to suggestions on improving public medical insurance and prevention work). Jiangxi zhengbao (Gazette of Jiangxi Government) 20: 46–48.Google Scholar
  58. Jiangxi Provincial Health Department. 1953. Jiangxi sheng weisheng renyuan xuexi yundong zongjie baogao (Summary report of Jiangxi health personnel study movement). Jiangxi zhengbao (Gazette of Jiangxi Government) 14: 1–6.Google Scholar
  59. Jonsen, Albert R. 2000. A short history of medical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kang, Ding. 1957. Ji suo buyu, wu shi yu ren (Don’t impose on others what you yourself don’t desire). Jiankang bao (Health News), 22 March, 4.Google Scholar
  61. Korzec, Michel, and Martin King Whyte. 1981. Reading Notes: The Chinese Wage System. The China Quarterly 86(June 1981): 248–273.Google Scholar
  62. Lampton, David M. 1977. The Politics of Medicine in China, Westview Special Studies on China and East Asia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  63. Lei, Sean Hsiang-lin. 2014. Neither donkey nor horse: medicine in the struggle over China’s modernity, Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li, Chunhua. 2011. Fasheng zai Wenge qijian shangshan xiaxiang gongzuo zhong buzheng zhifeng de shiliao (Historical materials concerning the unhealthy trends in the work of going and working in the countryside during the Cultural Revolution). Heilongjiang shi zhi (Heilongjiang history and annals) 6: 36–38.Google Scholar
  65. Li, Dequan. 1951. Guanyu quanguo weisheng huiyi de baogao (Report on the National Health Conference). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 1(1): 5–8.Google Scholar
  66. ———. 1957a. Dang neng lingdao weisheng kexue jishu (The Party can lead health science and technology). Jiankang bao (Health News), 12 July.Google Scholar
  67. Li, Jianzhong. 2010. Nanyang xian gongxiao hezuoshe yanjiu: 1949–2010 (A study of Nanyang Supply and Marketing Cooperative: 1949–2010). PhD, History, Nanjing University.Google Scholar
  68. Li, Minsheng. 1957b. Zheyang chuli duima, gongzheng ma? (Is it right and just to deal with it like this?). Jiankang bao (Health News), 11 January, 2.Google Scholar
  69. Li, Lulu, and Hanlin Li. 2000. Zhongguo de danwei zuzhi: ziyuan, quanli he jiaohuan (Resources, power and exchange in the Chinese work uni organization), Series of Contemporary Sociology Study. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Renmin Chubanshe (Zhejiang People’s Publishing House).Google Scholar
  70. Lian, Feng. 1953. Zuo hao jin nian gaodeng xuexiao biye tongxue tongyi fenpei de sixiang dongyuan gongzuo (Do well the work of ideologically mobilizing this year’s tertiary graduates for unified job assignment). Renmin jiaoyu (People’s Education) 7: 6–8.Google Scholar
  71. Lin, Chaochao. 2013. Shengchanxian shang de geming: 20 shiji 50 niandai Shanghai gongye qiye de laodong jingsai (Revolutions on the production line: Labour competition in Shanghai industries in the 1950s). Kaifang shidai (Open Times) 1: 146–164.Google Scholar
  72. Lin, Zhaoqian. 1958. Shenyang Yixueyuan yi yuan zheng gai qian hou (Before and after the rectification and reform in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenyang Medical College). Jiankang bao (Health News), 28 February, 3.Google Scholar
  73. Liu, Hongqing. 2009a. Gongfei laobao yiliao: jian xing jian yuan de jiyi (The public medical insurance and the labour insurance: a fading memory). Zhongguo shehui baozhang (Chinese Social Security) 10: 42–45.Google Scholar
  74. Liu, Yangqiao. 1960. Jiuhuo Cheng Debao shuoming le sheme (Saving the life of Cheng Debao, what does it indicate). Jiankang bao (Health News), 11 May, 2.Google Scholar
  75. Lu, Fengcheng. 1956. Jiaban jiadian re ren chou (Annoying overtime). Renmin Ribao (People’s Daily), 2 November, 2.Google Scholar
  76. Lucas, AnElissa. 1982. Chinese medical modernization: Comparative policy continuities, 1930–1980s. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  77. Lynteris, Christos. 2013. The spirit of selflessness in Maoist China: Socialist medicine and the new man. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. MacFarquhar, Roderick. 1997. The Politics of China: the eras of Mao and Deng, 2nd edn. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mao, Zedong. 1939. In memory of Norman Bethune. In Selected works of Mao Tse-Tung, 337–338. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.Google Scholar
  80. Mechanic, David. 1976. The growth of bureaucratic medicine: An inquiry into the dynamics of patient behavior and the organization of medical care, health, medicine, and society. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. Merton, Robert King. 1968. Social theory and social structure. 1968 enl. ed. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  82. Ministry of Education, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and National Planning Commission. 1963. Gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng tiaopei, paiqian zanxing banfa (Provisional methods of distribution and dispatch of tertiary graduates). In Renshi gongzuo wenjian xuanbian (Selected collection of personnel work), ed. Personnel Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 97–106. Beijing: Ministry of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  83. Ministry of Health. 1951a. Guanyu tiaozheng yiyao weisheng shiye zhong gongsi guanxi de jueding (Decision on adjusting the public-private relationship in the medical, pharmaceutical, and healthcare enterprise). Renmin ribao ( People’s Daily), 19 May.Google Scholar
  84. ———. 1951b. Guanyu zuzhi lianhe yiliao jigou shishi banfa (Enforcement methods for organising united medical organisations). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 1(2): 2.Google Scholar
  85. ———. 1952. Guojia gongzuo renyuan gongfei yiliao yufang shishi banfa (The implementation methods of the public medical insurance for state personnel). Accessed 6 January 2015. http://www.chinalawedu.com/falvfagui/fg22598/24166.shtml.
  86. ———. 1953. Guanyu gongfei yiliao de ji xiang guiding (Several rules about the public medical insurance). Accessed 3 June 2014. http://china.findlaw.cn/fagui/p_1/185483.html.
  87. ———. 2009. 2009 Zhongguo weisheng tongji nianjian (2009 Yearbook of Chinese health statistics). Beijing: Beijing Xiehe Yike Daxue Chubanshe (Beijing Union Medical University Press).Google Scholar
  88. Ministry of Tertiary Education, and Personnel Bureau of the State Council. 1956. Guanyu jiejue gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng fenpei gongzuo hou tiaozheng gongzuo wenti de baogao (Report on solving the problem of job changing after tertiary graduates being assigned jobs). Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan gongbao (Gazette of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China) 41: 1055–1056.Google Scholar
  89. no name. 1958. Woguo de guomin jingji jianshe he renmin shenghuo (Our country’s national economic reconstruction and people’s life). Beijing: Tongji Chubanshe (Statistics Publishing House).Google Scholar
  90. Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The social system. 1967 reprint ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  91. Peng, Xuebao. 2013. Jianguo chuqi zhonggong suqing waiguo zai hua wenhua shili yanjiu (A study of the Chinese Communist Party’s elimination of foreign cultural forces in the early years of the PRC). PhD, Department of the CCP History, The Party School of the Central Committee of the CCP.Google Scholar
  92. Qian, Xinzhong. 1992. Zhongguo weisheng shiye fazhan yu juece (The development and policy of Chinese public health). Beijing: Zhongguo Yiyao Keji Chubanshe (Chinese Medical and Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Press).Google Scholar
  93. Qiu, Renzong, Ziyang Chen, and Shaojun Guo. 1958. Chongpo yixue kexue yuejing de zhangai—dengji zhi (Break the barrier to leap-forward in medical science—hierarchy).” Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 5 November, 7.Google Scholar
  94. Qiu, Xiangxing, Fuchuan Sun, and Mingxu Wang (ed). 2008. Yixue lunli xue (Medical ethics), 3rd edn. Beijing: Renmin Weisheng Chubanshe (People’s Health Publishing House).Google Scholar
  95. Shanghai Health Annals Editorial Committee. 1998. Shanghai Health Annals. Shanghai: Shanghai Shehui Kexue Chubanshe (Shanghai Social Sciences Publishing House).Google Scholar
  96. Shanxi Provincial Health Department. 1953. Shanxi Sheng weisheng renyuan xuexi jihua (Study plan for Shangxi health personnel). Shanxi zhengbao (Gazette of Shangxi Government) 10: 77–79.Google Scholar
  97. ———. 1957. Guanyu dujue gongfei yiliao zhong de langfei xianxiang de tongbao (Circular on eliminating waste in public medical insurance). Shanxi zhengbao (Gazette of Shanxi Government) 1: 48–50.Google Scholar
  98. State Council. 1951a. Guanyu chongshi guofang jianshe zhong de weisheng renyuan de jueding (Decision on replenishing health personnel in the reconstruction of national defence). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 1(2): 1.Google Scholar
  99. ———. 1951b. Zhonghua Remin Gongheguo Laodong Baoxian Tiaoli (The PRC Labour Insurance Act). In Laodong baoxian shenghuo fuli wenjian xuan bian (Selected documents of labour, insurance, life, and welfare), 83–93. Taiyuan: Shanxi Labour Bureau.Google Scholar
  100. ———. 1953. Guanyu 1953 nian shuqi quanguo gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng tongchou fenpei gongzuo de zhishi (Decree regarding the unified job distribution for tertiary graduates in the summer of 1953). Shanxi zhengbao (Gazette of Shanxi Government) 17: 45–48.Google Scholar
  101. ———. 1954. Guanyu 1954 nian shuqi quanguo gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng tongchou fenpei gongzuo de zhishi (Decree regarding the unified job distribution for tertiary graduates in the summer of 1954). Shanxi zhengbao (Gazette of Shanxi Government) 16: 81–84.Google Scholar
  102. ———. 1955. Guanyu 1955 nian shuqi quanguo gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng tongchou fenpei gongzuo de zhishi (Decree regarding the unified job distribution for tertiary graduates in the summer of 1955). Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan gongbao (Gazette of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China) 13: 452–456.Google Scholar
  103. ———. 1956a. Gelei renyuan de gongzi biaozhun (Wage standards for personnel of all trades). In Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo jingji dang’an ziliao xuanbian: 1953–1957 (Selected economic archival documents of the People’s Republic of China: 1953–1957), edited by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Central Archive House, 497–527. Beijing: Zhongguo Wujia Chubanshe (Chinese Pricing Press).Google Scholar
  104. ———. 1956b. Guanyu gongzi gaige de jueding (Resolution regarding wage reform). Accessed 5 March 2016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-12/30/content_2393793.htm.
  105. ———. 1957. Guanyu 1957 nian shuqi quanguo gaodeng xuexiao biyesheng tongchou fenpei gongzuo de zhishi (Decree regarding the unified job distribution for tertiary graduates in the summer of 1957). Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guowuyuan gongbao (Gazette of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China) 33: 703–705.Google Scholar
  106. Tan, Zhuang. 1963. Tan tigao yiliao zhiliang wenti (On issues of improving medical service quality). Jiankang bao (Health News), 7 December, 2.Google Scholar
  107. The MOH Department of Cadre. 1956. Heli di fenpei he shiyong gaodeng yi yao yuan xiao biyesheng (Rationally assign and use graduates of medical and pharmaceutical colleges). Jiankang bao (Health News), 17 July 3.Google Scholar
  108. Tianjin Bureau of Finance. 1965. Guanyu wo shi gongfei yiliao guanli cunzai de wenti ji gaijin yijian de baogao (Report on the problems in the management of the public medical insurance in our city and improvement suggestions). Tianjin zhengbao (Gazette of Tianjin Government) 9: 5–7.Google Scholar
  109. Tianjin Government. 1951. Benfu xiang zhengwuyuan guanyu Tianjin shi weisheng huiyi de baogao (The government report to the State Council on Tianjin Health Conference). edited by Tianjin Government. Tianjin: Tianjin Government.Google Scholar
  110. Unknown. 1951. Sulian yisheng de sixiang zuofeng (The thought and practice of Soviet doctors). In Yiwu gongzuozhe de daolu (weisheng renyuan sixiang xuexi wenjian) [The path of medical workers (Ideological learning document for health personnel)], edited by Unknown, 62–74. Unknown: Unknown.Google Scholar
  111. Vogel, Ezra F. 1965. From friendship to comradeship: the change in personal relations in Communist China. The China Quarterly Jan–Mar(21): 46–60.Google Scholar
  112. Walder, Andrew G. 1986. Communist neo-traditionalism: Work and authority in Chinese industry. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  113. Wang, Dazhong. 2011a. Wo guo zhongyi congye renyuan zhiye guizhi chutan (Preliminary study on the practice regulations of our country’s Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners). Masters, Social Medicine and Health Management, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine.Google Scholar
  114. Wang, Dingkun. 1958a. Pipan zichan jieji geren zhuyi zhengqu zuo you hong you zhuan de renmin yiwu gongzuozhe (Criticize bourgeois individualism, and strive to become a both red and competent medical worker). Jiankang bao (Health News), 28 May, 5.Google Scholar
  115. Wang, Kangjiu (ed). 2001. Beijing weisheng zhi (Beijing health annals). Beijing: Beijing Kexue Jishu Chubanshe (Beijing Science and Technology Publishing House).Google Scholar
  116. Wang, Kejin. 1950. Buyao wujie zhengguihua (Don’t misunderstand formalization). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 19 March, 6.Google Scholar
  117. Wang, Shaohua, and Miao Zhou. 1965. Jiaqiang gongfei yiliao guanli de ji xiang cuoshi (Several measures to enhance the management of the public medical insurance). Caizheng (Finance) 11: 16–18.Google Scholar
  118. Wang, Yonghua. 2011b. Jiangsu sheng xin “wu fan” yundong shu lue (A brief account of the new “Five Anti” Movement in Jiangsu Province). Lianyungang Shifan Gaodeng Zhuanke Xuexiao xuebao (Journal of Lianyungang Teachers College) 2: 85–91.Google Scholar
  119. Wang, Zhaohuai. 1958b. Tuidong yiyuan gongzuo yuejin zai yuejin (Push hospital work to leap forward and forward further). Jiankang bao (Health News), 1 October, 3.Google Scholar
  120. Weber, Max. 1946. From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. Translated by Hans Heinrich Gerth and C. Wright Mills. New York: Oxford university press.Google Scholar
  121. ———. 1968. The religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism, A Free Press paperback. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  122. Weber, Max, Guenther Roth, and Claus Wittich. 1978. Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology, 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  123. Wen, Yang. 2008. Yizhi yu chaoye—Minguo zhongyi yizheng (Transplant and transcend—Administration of traditional medicine in Republican China). Beijing: Zhongguo Zhongyiyao Chubanshe (Chinese TCM Publishing House).Google Scholar
  124. Wilenski, Peter. 1976. The delivery of health services in the People’s Republic of China. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  125. Wu, Wenjun. 2014. Xin Zhongguo chuqi gongfei yiliao zhidu jianshe yanjiu—jiyu fan langfei de shijiao (A study of the construction of public health insurance institutions in the early years of the New China—From the perspective of anti-waste). Jishu jingji yu guanli yanjiu (Technological economy and management study) 7: 86–90.Google Scholar
  126. Xinhua News Agency. 1958. Buyong guojia touzi zengshe bingchuang er qian zhang (Add two thousand hospital beds without state investment). Jiankang bao (Health News), 21 May, 1.Google Scholar
  127. ———. 1965. Chengshi weisheng bumen ba gongzuo zhongdian zhuanxiang nongcun (Urban health departments shift the focus of their work to the countryside). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 27 September, 1.Google Scholar
  128. Xinhua News Agency Reporter. 1969. Yi chang sixiang lingyu li de da geming (A great revolution in the ideological domain). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 30 December, 4.Google Scholar
  129. ———. 1971. Cong renmin liyi chufa, wei renmin de jiankang fendou (In view of people’s interests, and for the health of the people). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 14 August, 3.Google Scholar
  130. Xu, Xiaoqun. 2001. Chinese professionals and the republic state: the rise of professional associations in Shanghai 1912–1937, ed. William Kirby, Cambridge Modern China Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Xu, Xinen, and Xianzhang Li. 1952. Chedi gaizao sixiang, renzhen wei renmin fuwu (Transform thought thoroughly, serve the people genuinely). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 16 January, 6.Google Scholar
  132. Yang, Jisheng. 2013. Daolu, lilun, zhidu—wo dui Wenhua Dageming de sikao (Path, theory, institution—my thinking about the Cultural Revolution). Jiyi (Remembrance) (104). Accessed 19 May 2016. http://prchistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/REMEMBRANCE_No104.pdf.
  133. Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui. 1994. Gifts, favors and banquets: the art of social relationships in China. In The Wilder House Series in Politics, History and Culture, ed. David Laitin, and George Steinmetz. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Yang, Xiaomin, and Yihu Zhou. 1999. Zhongguo danwei zhidu (China’s work-unit system). Beijing: Zhongguo Jingji Chubanshe (Chinese Economy Publishing House).Google Scholar
  135. Yang, Zhenya. 1958a. Tianjin yiwu jie zai shuang fan yundong zhong (Tianjin medical circles in the double-anti movement). Jiankang bao (Health News), 18 April, 3.Google Scholar
  136. ———. 1958b. Yiliao shiye guanli zhong de jige wenti (A few issues in medical administration). Jiankang bao (Health News), 23 August, 3.Google Scholar
  137. Yao, Shangwen, and Shangqian Bai. 1955. Yi ge yikao jiaban jiadian wancheng renwu de gongcheng duan (An engineering unit that relies on overtime to complete tasks). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 6 November, 6.Google Scholar
  138. Yin, Qian. 2008. Study on medical practitioners in the period of the Republic of China (1912–1937)—Take Shanghai as a focus. PhD, Institute of Modern Chinese University, Central China Normal University.Google Scholar
  139. ———. 2012. Shenfen xunqiu yu juese chongtu: jindai yisheng zhenjin wenti tanxi (Identity search and role conflict: a study of the consultation fees of modern doctors). Huanzhong Shifan Daxue xuebao (Renwen shehui kexue ban) (Journal of Huazhong Normal University (Humanities and social sciences)) 51(1): 92–98.Google Scholar
  140. ———. 2013. Minguo shiqi de yishi quanti yanjiu (1912–1937)—yi Shanghai wei taolun zhongxin (A study of medical groups in the Republican era [1912–1937]—with Shanghai as the focus). Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Keshi Chubanshe (Chinese Social Sciences Publishing House).Google Scholar
  141. Yip, Ka-che. 1995. Health and National Reconstruction in Nationalist China—the Development of Modern Health Services, 1928–1937. Ann Aorbor, MI: The Association for Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  142. Yu, Chaoan. 1966. Sichuan san qian duo yiwu renyuan xiaxiang luohu (In Sichuan more than three thousand medical personnel settled in the countryside). Jiankang bao, 15 January, 1.Google Scholar
  143. Yu, Qihua, and Mingyuan Gao. 1957. Yinggai heli shiyong renli (Use manpower rationally). Jiankang bao (Health News), 8 March, 2.Google Scholar
  144. Zhang, Kai. 1958. Po mixin cha hongqi sixiang yuejin gongzuo yuejin (Banish blind faith, put in red flags, thought leaps forward, work leaps forward). Jiankang bao (Health News), 5 July, 1–2.Google Scholar
  145. Zhao, Hongjun. 1989. Jindai zhong xi yi lunzheng shi (A modern history of the debate and struggle between traditional Chinese and western medicine). Hefei: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe (Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House).Google Scholar
  146. Zheng, Zhijun, Li Wang, Nan Liu, and Chuanrong Yu. 1987. Yiliao shoufei zhidu bianqian de huigu yu zhanwang (Review of and outlook for medical service fee system). Zhongguo weisheng jingji (Chinese Health Economics) 2: 32–34.Google Scholar
  147. Zhi, Ge. 1955. Fandui renyi jiaban jiadian (Oppose unrestrained overtime). Laodong (Labour) 9: 17.Google Scholar
  148. Zhong, Jianying. 2009. Ershi shiji liushi niandai de fan shangpin “zou houmen” yundong (The movement combating obtaining goods through “backdoor” in the 1960s). Zhonggong dangshi yanjiu (CCP history study) 7: 56–63.Google Scholar
  149. Zhou, Enlai. 1951a. Guanyu gaige xuezhi de jueding (Resolution of Education Reform). Renmin jiaoyu (People’s Education) 4(1): 53–54.Google Scholar
  150. ———. 1952. Zhongyang Renmin Zhengfu Zhengwu Yuan guanyu quanguo geji renmin zhengfu, dangpai, tuanti ji suoshu shiye danwei he guojia gongzuo renyuan shixing gongfei yiliao yufang de zhishi (Directive of the State Council of the Central People’s Government on implementing public-funded medicine and prevention for state workers employed by people’s governments at all levels, parties, associations and their institutional work units). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 28 June, 1.Google Scholar
  151. Zhou, Hong, and Jun Zhang. 2003. Yisheng xianglai shou “hongbao”? (Doctors have always taken “red packets”?). Dushu (Reading) 9: 122–128.Google Scholar
  152. Zhou, Quanhua, and Lu Ru. 2015. 20 shiji 60 niandai chu fandui shangpin “zou houmen” yundong tanxi (An exploration of the movement combating obtaining goods through “backdoor” in the 1960s). Dangdai Zhongguo shi yanjiu (Contemporary China History Studies) 22(4): 55–67.Google Scholar
  153. Zhou, Sihui. 1966. Gongzuofu yigai gaige (Uniforms should be reformed). Jiankang bao (Health News), 2 February, 3.Google Scholar
  154. Zhou, Sumin. 1957. Chuli gong xiu jiufen yi fen qing shi fei (Distinguish right from wrong when handling disputes between workers and patients). Jiankang bao (Health News), 5 February, 2.Google Scholar
  155. Zhou, Xueguang, Yun Ai, and Hong Lian. 2012. The limit of bureaucratic power in organizations: The case of the Chinese bureaucracy. In Rethinking power in organizations, institutions, and markets, ed. David Courpasson, Damon Golsorkhi, and Jeffrey J. Sallaz, 81–111. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhu, De. 1951. Wei qunzhong fuwu bing yikao qunzhong shi weisheng shiye fazhan de zhengque daolun (Serving the masses and relying on the masses is the right way to develop health enterprise). In Yiwu gongzuo zhe de daolu (Road for medical workers), edited by Health Department of the People’s Government of Hubei, 5–8. Changsha: Health Department of the People’s Government of Hubei.Google Scholar
  157. Zhu, Deming. 2008. Minguo shiqi Zhejiang yiyao shi (Zhejiang medical and pharmaceutical history in the Republican era). Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe (Chinese Social Science Publishing House).Google Scholar
  158. Zhu, Ling. 2009. Nongcun qianyi gongren de laodong shijian he zhiye jiankang (Working hours and occupational health of rural migrant workers). Zhongguo shehui kexue (Chinese Social Sciences) 1: 133–149.Google Scholar
  159. Zhu, Xianyi. 1954. Yiwu renyuan xuexi Zongluxian ying jianjue kefu zichan jieji xixiang (Medical personnel should resolve to overcome bourgeois ideology when studying the General Line). Zhongyi zazhi (Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine) 3(2): 1–3.Google Scholar
  160. Zhu, Zemin. 1958. “Jiating bingchuang” shi yiliao weisheng gongzuo de yi xiang chuangju (“Home hospital bed” is a pioneering undertaking in medical and health work). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 4 July, 7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • z Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International StudiesUniversity of Technology SydneySydney, NSWAustralia

Personalised recommendations