• Jingqing Yang


This chapter surveys informal payments in health systems around the world, especially those in post-socialist countries, and examines the negative impacts of the practice on health financing and reform and on patient’s medical behaviors. It then evaluates the definitions of informal payments given by international scholars, and those of red packets by the Chinese government and scholars, and proposes a definition of the red packet that is followed in this book.


Former Soviet Union Health Reform Healthcare Reform Informal Payment Free Healthcare 
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© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingqing Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International StudiesUniversity of Technology SydneySydney, NSWAustralia

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