• Dieter Overdieck
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


Modification of stomatal density, guard cell length, and number of epidermal cells/leaf area unit are related to [CO2] and temperature as shown by studies on fossils, herbal material, and today’s leaf samples. In the studies making use of the older material, the number of stomata/leaf area unit decreased at elevated [CO2], and in some cases it also decreased with elevated temperature. These results contrast with studies using today’s leaf samples. Reasons for the different results are discussed. Slightly more phloem tissue is found in today’s leaf samples at elevated [CO2]. Mixed results are presented from studies on stem wood anatomy, including lumen of xylem vessels, the length of xylem vessels, the number of xylem vessels/unit of transectional area, the resin canal and wood ray density, and the number of cambial cells, at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature. Elevated [CO2] affects tangential cell wall width, annual tree-ring width, and wood density positively. In addition, clear positive effects of elevated temperature as well as elevated [CO2] x increased temperature are shown. Results are summarized in a meta-analysis.


Stomatal density Living fossils Mesophyll Leaf vascular area Wood density Tree-ring width Resin canals Wood rays Tracheids Water conducting capacity 


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© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter Overdieck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology, Ecology of Woody PlantsTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany

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