Advertisement

Macro- and Micronutrients

  • Dieter Overdieck
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)

Abstract

Detailed distribution patterns of nitrogen concentration in the plant body are presented, and the clearly wider C/N ratio at elevated [CO2] is documented by a series of examples. Yearly course of nitrogen concentration shows that, at elevated [CO2], nitrogen concentration is lower in coarse roots but not in fine roots. The “dilution hypothesis” (i.e., that nutrient concentrations in tissues must decrease if more carbon is taken up at elevated [CO2]) is discussed and modified for nitrogen and also for the macronutrients phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Phosphorus concentration as well as potassium remains stable despite increased biomass and carbohydrate concentrations at e[CO2], whereas concentrations of calcium and, to a lesser extent, magnesium decrease. Iron shows an increase in concentration at elevated [CO2] but manganese does not. Effects of atmospheric [CO2] and temperature on other micronutrient concentrations (copper, zinc, aluminum, and mercury) are discussed with references to other work. All effects of elevated [CO2] on macro- and micronutrients are summarized in a figure.

Keywords

Nitrogen Carbon/nitrogen ratio Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Manganese Iron 

References

  1. Anza M, Riga P, Garbisu C (2005) Time course of antooxidant responses of Capsicum annuum subjected to a progressive magnesium deficiency. Ann Appl Biol 146:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bader MK-F, Siegwolf R, Körner C (2010) Sustained enhancement of photosynthesis in mature deciduous forest trees after 8 years of free air CO2 enrichment. Planta 232:1115–1125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett DJ, Gifford RM (1995) Acclimation of photosynthesis and growth by cotton to elevated CO2: Interactions with severe phosphate deficiency and restricted rooting volume. Aust J Plant Physiol 22:955–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett DJ, Richardson AE, Gifford RM (1998) Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase wheat root phosphatase activity when growth is limited by phosphorus. Aust J Plant Physiol 25:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bassirirad H, Thomas RB, Reynolds JF, Strain BR (1996) Differential responses of root uptake kinetics of NH4 + and NO3 to enriched atmospheric CO2 concentration in field-grown loblolly pine. Plant Cell Environ 19:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer GA, Berntson GM (2001) Ammonium and nitrate acquisition by plants in response to elevated CO2 concentration: the role of root physiology and architecture. Tree Physiol 21:137–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bollmark L, Sennerby-Forsse L, Ericsson T (1999) Seasonal dynamics and effects of nitrogen supply rate on nitrogen and carbohydrate reserves in cutting-derived Salix viminalis plants. Can J For Res 29:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broadley M, Brown P, Cakmak I, Rengel Z, Zhao F (2012) Functions of nutrients: macronutrients. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic Press-Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 191–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler SM, Melillo JM, Johnson JE, Mohan J, Steudler PA, Lux H, Burrows E, Smith RM, Vario CL, Scott L, Hill TD, Aponte N, Bowles F (2012) Soil warming alters nitrogen cycling in a New England forest: implications for ecosystem function and structure. Oecologia 168:819–828CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Calfapietra C, De Angelis P, Gielen B, Lukac M, Moscatelli MC, Avino G, Lagomarsino A, Polle A, Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnoza G, Hoosbeek MR, Cotrufo MF (2007) Increased nitrogen-use efficiency of a short-rotation poplar plantation in elevated CO2 concentration. Tree Physiol 27:1153–1163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Causin HF, Tremmel DC, Rufty TW, Reynolds JF (2004) Growth, nitrogen uptake, and metabolism in two semiarid shrubs grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations: effects of nitrogen supply and source. Am J Bot 91:565–572CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Conroy JP, Barlow EWR, Bevege DI (1986) Response of Pinus radiata seedlings to carbon dioxide enrichment at different levels of water and phosphorus: growth, morphology and anatomy. Ann Bot 57:105–117Google Scholar
  13. Conroy JP, Milham PJ, Reed ML, Barlow EW (1990) Increases in posphorus requirements for CO2-enriched pine species. Plant Physiol 92:977–982CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Conroy JP, Milham PJ, Barlow EWR (1992) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the growth response of Eucalyptus grandis to high CO2. Plant Cell Environ 15:843–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cotrufo MF, Ineson P, Scott AY (1998) Elevated CO2 reduces the nitrogen concentration of plant tissues. Glob Chang Biol 4:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delaire M, Frak E, Signone M, Adam B, Beaujard F, Le Roux X (2005) Sudden increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees. Tree Physiol 25:229–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Duval BD, Blankinship JC, Dijkstra P, Hungate BA (2012) CO2 effects on plant nutrient concentration depend on plant functional group and available nitrogen: a meta-analysis. Plant Ecol 213:505–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eguchi N, Karatsu K, Ueda T, Funada R, Takagi K, Hiura T, Sasa K, Koike T (2008) Photosynthetic responses of birch and alder saplings grown in a free air CO2 enrichment system in Northern Japan. Trees 22:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eller ASD, McGuire KL, Sparks JP (2011) Responses of sugar maple and hemlock seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide under altered above- and belowground nitrogen sources. Tree Physiol 31:391–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Embledon TW (1973) Magnesium. In: Chapman HD (ed) Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils. University of California, Riverside, pp 225–263Google Scholar
  21. Esmeijer-Liu AJ, Aerts R, Kürschner WM, Bobbink R, Lotter AF, Verhoeven JTA (2009) Nitrogen enrichment lowers Betula pendula green and yellow leaf stoichiometry irrespective of effects of elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Soil 316:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forstreuter M (2001) Auswirkungen globaler Klimaänderungen auf das Wachstum und den Gaswechsel (CO2/H2O) von Rotbuchenbeständen (Fagus sylvatica L.). Habilitationsschrift (in German with English abstract), TU-Berlin, Gerrmany, pp 115–120, 180–183Google Scholar
  23. Gifford RM, Barrett DJ, Lutze JL (2000) The effect of elevated [CO2] on the C:N and C:P mass ratios of plant tissues. Plant Soil 224:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hawkesford M, Horst W, Kickey T, Lambers H, Schjoerring J, Skrumsager-Moller I, White P (2012) Functions of macronutrients. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic Press-Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 135–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hubbard KE, Siegel RS, Valerio G, Brandt B, Schroeder JI (2012) Abscisic acid and CO2 signalling via calcium sensitivity priming in guard cells, new CDPK mutant phenotypes and a method for improved resolution of stomatal stimulus-response analyses. Ann Bot 109:5–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Iversen CM, Hooker TD, Classen AT, Norby RJ (2011) Net mineralization of N at deeper soil depths as a potential mechanism for sustained forest production under elevated [CO2]. Glob Chang Biol 17:1130–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jach ME, Ceulemans R (2000) Effects of season, needle age and elevated atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Tree Physiol 20:145–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson DW, Ball T, Walker RF (1995) Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on nutrient uptake in ponderosa pine seedlings. Plant Soil 168–169:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson DW, Cheng W, Joslin JD, Norby RJ, Edwards NT, Todd DE Jr (2004) Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in a sweetgum plantation. Biogeochemistry 69:379–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jordan M-O, Habib R, Bonafous M (1998) Uptake and allocation of nitrogen in young peach trees as affected by the amount of photosynthates available in roots. J Plant Nutr 21:2441–2454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kang S-M, Titus JS (1980) Qualitative and quantitative changes in nitrogenous compounds in senescing leaf and bark tissues of the apple. Physiol Plant 50:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kanowski J (2001) Effects of elevated CO2 on the foliar chemistry of seedlings of two rainforest trees from North-East Australia: Implications for folivorous marsupials. Aust Ecol 26:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kearns EV, Assmann SM (1993) The guard cell-environment connection. Plant Physiol 102:711–715CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirkby E (2012) Part I, Nutritional physiology. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kogawara S, Norisada M, Tange T, Yagi H, Kojima K (2005) Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings. Tree Physiol 26:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laing W, Greer D, Sun O, Beets P, Lowe A, Payn T (2000) Physiological impacts of Mg deficiency in Pinus radiata: growth and photosynthesis. New Phytol 146:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lautner S, Fromm J (2010) Calcium-dependent physiological processes in trees. Plant Biol 12:268–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Le Thiec D, Dixon M, Loosveldt P, Garrec JP (1995) Seasonal and annual variations of phosphorus, calcium, potassium and manganese contents in different cross-sections of Picea abies (L.) Karst. needles and Quercus rubra L. leaves exposed to elevated CO2. Trees 10:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewis JD, Strain BR (1996) The role of mycorrhizas in the response of Pinus taeda seedlings to elevated CO2. New Phytol 133:431–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lewis JD, Lucash M, Olszyk DM, Tingey DT (2004) Relationship between needle nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic responses of Douglas-fir seedlings to elevated CO2 and temperature. New Phytol 162:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis JD, Ward JK, Tissue DT (2010) Phosphorus supply drives nonlinear responses of cottonwood (Populus deltoides) to increases in CO2 concentration from glacial to future concentrations. New Phytol 187:438–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Linder S (1995) Foliar analysis for detecting and correcting nutrient imbalances in Norway spruce. Ecol Bull (Copenhagen) 44:178–190Google Scholar
  43. Liu X-P (2006) Impact of elevated pCO2 on mass flow of reduced nitrogen in trees. J Integr Plant Biol 48:1385–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu L, King JS, Giardina CP (2007) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and troposheric O3 on nutrient dynamics: decomposition of leaf litter in trembling aspen and paper birch communities. Plant Soil 299:65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loladze I (2002) Rising atmospheric CO2 and human nutrition: towards globally imbalanced plant stoichiometry? Trends Ecol Evol 17:457–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luo Y, Su B, Currie WS, Dukes JS, Finzi A, Hartwig U, Hungate B, McMurtie RE, Oren R, Parton WJ, Pataki DE, Shaw RW, Zak DR, Field CB (2004) Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Bioscience 54:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luomala EM, Laitinen K, Sutinen S, Kellomäki S, Vapaavuori E (2005) Stomatal density, anatomy and nutrient concentrations of Scots pine needles are affected by elevated CO2 and temperature. Plant Cell Environ 28:733–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McCarthy HR, Oren R, Johnsen KH, Gallet-Budynek A, Pritchard SG, Cook CW, LaDeau SL, Jackson RB, Finzi AC (2010) Re-assessment of plant carbon dynamics at the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site: interactions of atmospheric [CO2] with nitrogen and water availability over stand development. New Phytol 185:514–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Millard P, Grelet G-A (2010) Nitrogen storage and remobilization by trees: ecophysiological relevance in a changing world. Tree Physiol 30:1083–1095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Nagarajah S, Ratnasuriya GB (1978) The effect of phosphorus and potassium deficiencies on transpiration in tea (Camellia sinensis). Physiol Plant 42:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Natali SM, Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, Norby RJ, Zhang H, Finzi AC, Lerdau MT (2008) Increased mercury in forests soils under elevated carbon dioxide. Oecologia 158:343–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Natali SM, Sañudo-Wilhemy SA, Lerdau MT (2009a) Plant and soil mediation of elevated CO2 impacts on trace metals. Ecosystems 12:715–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Natali SM, Sañudo-Wilhemy SA, Lerdau MT (2009b) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate reductase activity in sweetgum and loblolly pine trees in two temperate forests. Plant Soil 314:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Niinemets Ü, Tenhunen JD, Canta NR, Chaves MM, Faria T, Pereira JS, Reynolds JF (1999) Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the acclimation potential of foliage photosynthetic properties of cork oak, Quercus suber, to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Glob Chang Biol 5:455–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Norby RJ, Long TM, Hartz-Rubin JS, O’Neill EGO (2000) Nitrogen resorption in senescing tree leaves in a warmer, CO2-enriched atmosphere. Plant Soil 224:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Norby RJ, O’Neill EG, Luxmoore RJ (1986) Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil. Plant Physiol 82:83–89CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Neill EG, Luxmoore RJ, Norby RJ (1987) Elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on seedling growth, nutrient uptake, and rhizosphere bacterial populations of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Plant Soil 104:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oddo E, Inzerillo S, La Bella F, Grifasi F, Salleo S (2011) Short-term effects of potassium fertilization on the hydraulis conductance of Laurus nobilis L. Tree Physiol 31:131–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Oh N-H, Richter DD (2004) Soil acidification induced by elevated atmospheric CO2. Glob Chang Biol 10:1936–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ollinger SV, Aber JD, Reich P, Freuder RJ (2002) Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone, elevated CO2 and land use history on the carbon dynamics of northern hardwood forests. Glob Chang Biol 8:545–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Overdieck D (1993) Elevated CO2 and the mineral content of herbaceous and woody plants. Vegetatio 104(105):403–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Overdieck D, Fenselau K (2009) Elevated CO2 concentration and temperature effects on the partitioning of chemical components along juvenile Scots pine stems (Pinus sylvestris L.). Trees 23:771–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Overdieck D, Reid C, Strain BR (1988) The effects of preindustrial and future CO2 concentrations on growth, dry matter production and the C/N-relationship in plants at low nutrient supply: Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Abelmochus esculentus (okra) and Raphanus sativus (radish). Angewandte Botanik Appl Bot 62:119–134Google Scholar
  64. Pasquini SC, Santiago LS (2012) Nutrients limit photosynthesis in seedlings of a lowland tropical forest tree species. Oecologia 168:311–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pearcy RW, Björkman O (1983) Physiological effects. In: Lemon ER (ed) CO2 and plants. The response of plants to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Westview Press, Boulder, p 93Google Scholar
  66. Peñuelas J, Filella I, Tognetti R (2001) Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2 spring. Glob Chang Biol 7:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pfirrmann T, Barnes JD, Steiner K, Schramel P, Busch U, Küchenhoff H, Payer H-D (1996) Effects of elevated CO2, O3, and K deficiency on Norway spruce (Picea abies): nutrient supply, content and leaching. New Phytol 134:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Polle A, Otter T, Mehne-Jakobs B (1994) Effect of magnesium-deficiency on antioxidative systems in needles of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.], grown with different ratios of nitrate and ammonium as nitrogen sources. New Phytol 128:621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Proe MF, Millard P (1994) Relationships between nutrient supply, nitrogen partitioning and growth in young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Tree Physiol 14:75–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Reich PB, Schoettle AW (1988) Role of phosphorus and nitrogen in photosynthetic and whole plant carbon gain and nutrient use efficiency in eastern white pine. Oecologia 77:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reining F (1990) Langzeiteffekte von erhöhtem CO2-Angebot auf das Wachstum von Acer pseudoplatanus und Fagus sylvatica. Dissertation, University of Osnabrück, Germany, pp 1–130 (in German)Google Scholar
  72. Reining E (1991) Langzeiteffekte von erhöhtem CO2-Angebot auf den Mineralstoffhaushalt von Acer pseudoplatanus und Fagus sylvatica. Dissertation, University of Osnabrück, Germany, pp 1–110 (in German)Google Scholar
  73. Roberntz P, Stockfors J (1998) Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nutrition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and needle respiration of field-grown Norway spruce trees. Tree Physiol 18:233–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodenkirchen H, Göttlein A, Kozovits AR, Matyssek R, Grams TEE (2009) Nutrient contents and efficiencies of beech and spruce saplings as influenced by competition and O3/CO2 regime. Eur For Res 128:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruan J, Ma L, Yang Y (2012) Magnesium nutrition on accumulation and transport of amino acids in tea plants. J Sci Food Agric 92:1375–1383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M (2008) Warming and drought change trace element bioaccumulation patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland. Chemosphere 70:874–885CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Schaberg PG, Minocha R, Long S, Halman JM, Hawley GJ, Eagar C (2011) Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season. Trees 25:1053–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schleppi P, Bucher-Wallin I, Hagedorn F, Körner C (2012) Increased nitrate availability in the soil of a mixed mature temperate forest subjected to elevated CO2 concentration (canopy FACE). Glob Chang Biol 18:757–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schortemeyer M, Atkin OK, McFarlane N, Evans JR (1999) The impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrate supply on growth, biomass allocation, nitrogen partitioning and N2 fixation of Acacia melanoxylon. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schulte M, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H (1998) Interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, mycorrhization and drought on long-distance transport of reduced sulphur in young pedunculate oak trees (Quercus robur L.). Plant Cell Environ 21:917–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schulte M, von Ballmoos P, Rennenberg H, Herschbach C (2002) Life-long growth of Quercus ilex L. at natural CO2 springs acclimates sulphur, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism of the progeny to elevated pCO2. Plant Cell Environ 25:1715–1727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Searle SY, Turnbull MH, Boelman NT, Schuster WSF (2012) Urban environment of New York City promotes growth in Northern red oak seedlings. Tree Physiol 32:389–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Shinano T, Yamamoto T, Tawaraya K, Tadokoro M, Koike T, Osaki M (2007) Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on the nutrient uptake characteristics of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). Tree Physiol 27:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Stitt M, Krapp A (1999) The interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition. The physiological and molecular background. Plant Cell Environ 22:583–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Temperton VM, Grayston SJ, Jackson G, Barton CVM, Millard P, Jarvis PG (2003) Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in long-term field experiment. Tree Physiol 23:1051–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Tjoelker MG, Reich PB, Oleksyn J (1999) Changes in leaf nitrogen and carbohydrates underlie temperature and CO2 acclimation of dark respiration in five boreal tree species. Plant Cell Environ 22:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Utriainen J, Janhunen S, Helmisaari H-S, Holopainen T (2000) Biomass allocation, needle structural characteristics and nutrient composition in Scots pine seedlings exposed to elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations. Trees 14:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang J, Duan B, Zhang Y (2012) Effects of experimental warming on growth, biomass allocation, and needle chemistry of Abies faxoniana in even-aged monospecific stands. Plant Ecol 213:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Warren CR (2009) Why does temperature affect relative uptake rates of nitrate, ammonium and glycine: a test with Eucalytus pauciflora. Soil Biol Biochem 41:778–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang S, Dang Q-L, Yü X (2006) Nutrient and [CO2] elevation had synergistic effects on biomass production but not on biomass allocation of white birch. For Ecol Manag 234:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter Overdieck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology, Ecology of Woody PlantsTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations