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Expanding the Outlook to Effects on Ecosystems

  • Dieter Overdieck
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)

Abstract

Mixed results are shown for the leaf area index of small, dense stands of young deciduous trees in soil-litter-plant enclosures (model ecosystems) at elevated [CO2]. More living biomass is accumulated each year over up to 6 years of growth at almost doubled ambient [CO2]. Examples of daily courses of CO2 gas exchange rates of these stands and canopy gross photosynthesis are calculated by means of the net CO2 gas exchange and dark respiration rates of the whole soil-litter-plant systems under unchanged ambient and elevated [CO2]. System total respiration is shown in response to changes in soil temperature, and selected daily courses illustrate the comparison of total system CO2 gross uptake with the total system and leaf dark respiration. All measured daily courses of system CO2 net assimilation are combined into monthly averages for one experimental year. This shows that the effect of elevated [CO2] on the overall CO2 gas exchange balance of the small tree groups is significantly positive early in the growth season. Water use efficiency is calculated for the whole system using special mathematical formulas (see Chap.  2). A clear reduction in water use at elevated [CO2] occurs at the stand level.

Production of litter is enhanced, and wider C/N ratios indicate reduced litter quality. Effects of more leaf litter recycled to the soil, of lower nutrient concentrations in soil organic material, of more root exudates, and of increased root mass turnover on soil bacteria are discussed. Despite some negative effects, it seems likely that fungi mass and activity will increase more than bacterial mass in forest soils should tropospheric [CO2] increase further. Effects on a few soil animals are also documented and summarized. As with bacteria and fungi, they also respond to reduced litter quality at elevated [CO2]. Wider C/N ratios also determine herbivory above- and belowground. Effects are discussed on the basis of examples in terms of animal abundance, consumption, developmental time, and relative growth rates. In addition, plausible effects of increased temperature on consumption rates are considered with respect to altered food quality.

Keywords

Leaf area index Net primary production Phytomass accumulation CO2 gas exchange of soil-litter-plant systems Evapotranspiration Soil warming Litter quality Decomposition Soil bacteria Soil fungi Earthworms Herbivory Consumption rate Soil invertebrate community 

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© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter Overdieck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology, Ecology of Woody PlantsTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany

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