Growth and Mass

  • Dieter Overdieck
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


Yearly courses of height and basal stem diameter growth of saplings from studies lasting up to 4 years show positive effects of elevated [CO2] that diminish over time. A growth model is used to extrapolate results from studies on young trees to mature trees. Mostly positive and species-specific effects of increasing temperature on height and basal stem diameter growth are documented. Effects of elevated [CO2] on individual leaf area, specific leaf area, number of leaves/tree, and leaf area/tree are also summarized in a table and a figure. The clearest CO2 effect is found for specific leaf area, which decreases at elevated [CO2]. Aging of needles is accelerated when [CO2] and temperature are both increased. Effects of a 4 °C increase in temperature on leaf features of some selected species are combined in a table. An average of ~29 % biomass increase is calculated for deciduous, broad-leaved and evergreen trees with needles from a series of CO2-enrichment studies with doubled ambient [CO2]. It is shown that the positive effect of e[CO2] on total biomass accumulation is dependent on root space. Partitioning of biomass and weight ratios among the main plant organs is documented by examples. In a further documentation of the effects of 4 °C higher temperature and doubled ambient [CO2], it is shown that biomass partitioning is not essentially changed by temperature increase.


Tree height Basal stem diameter Relative growth Leaf area/tree Leaf number/tree Specific leaf area Number of buds/tree Mass partitioning Pot size effect 


  1. Allen LH, Vu JCV (2009) Carbon dioxide and high temperature effects on growth of young orange trees in a humid, subtropical environment. Agric For Meteorol 149:820–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aranjuelo I, Pintó-Marijuan M, Avice JC, Fleck I (2010) Effect of elevated CO2 on carbon partitioning in young Quercus ilex L. during resprouting. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25:1527–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkin OK, Schortemeyer M, McFarlane N, Evans JR (1999) The response of fast- and slow-growing Acacia species to elevated atmospheric CO2: an analysis of the underlying components of relative growth rate. Oecologia 120:544–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avery TE, Burkhart HE (2002) Forest measurements, 5th edition. McGraw Hill Series in Forest Resources. Boston …Toronto, p. 343Google Scholar
  5. Bassow SL, McConnaughay KDM, Bazzaz FA (1994) The response of temperate tree seedlings grown in elevated CO2 to extreme temperature events. Ecol Appl 4:593–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerasoli S, Wertin T, McGuire MA, Rodrigues A, Aubrey DP, Pereira JS, Teskey RO (2014) Poplar saplings exposed to recurring temperature shifts of different amplitude exhibit differences in leaf gas exchange and growth despite equal mean temperature. AoB Plants 6: plu018. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plu018
  7. Cernusak LA, Winter K, Martinez C, Correa E, Aranda J, Garcia M, Jaramillo C, Turner BL (2011) Responses of legume versus nonlegume tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration. Plant Physiol 157:372–385CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ceulemans R, Mousseau M (1994) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. Tansley Review No. 71. New Phytol 127:425–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crookshanks M, Taylor G, Broadmeadow M (1998) Elevated CO2 and tree root growth: contrasting responses in Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris. New Phytol 138:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duan B, Zhang X, Li Y, Li L, Korpelainen H, Li C (2013) Plastic responses of Populus yunnanensis and Abies faxoniana to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming. For Ecol Manag 296:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esmail S, Oelbermann M (2011) The impact of climate change on the growth of tropical agroforestry tree seedlings. Agrofor Syst 83:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fender A-C, Mantilla-Contreras J, Leuschner C (2011) Multiple environmental control of leaf area and ist significance for productivity in beech saplings. Trees 25:847–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gebauer RL, Reynolds JF, Strain BR (1996) Allometric relations and growth in Pinus taeda: the effect of elevated CO2 and changing N availability. New Phytol 134:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghannoum O, Phillips NG, Conroy JP, Smith RA, Attard RD, Woodfield R, Logan BA, Lewis JD, Tissue DT (2010) Exposure to preindustrial, current and future atmospheric CO2 and temperature differentially affects growth and photosynthesis in Eucalyptus. Glob Chang Biol 16:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hättenschwiler S, Miglietta F, Raschi A, Körner C (1997) Thirty years of in situ tree growth under elevated CO2: a model for future forest responses? Glob Chang Biol 3:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang J-G, Bergeron Y, Denneler B, Berninger F, Tardiff J (2007) Response of forest trees to increased atmospheric CO2. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kattge J, Knorr W (2007) Temperature acclimation in a biochemical model of photosynthesis: a reanalysis of data from 36 species. Plant Cell Environ 30:1176–1190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kilpeläinen A, Peltola H, Ryyppö A, Kellomäki S (2005) Scots pine responses to elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration: growth and wood properties. Tree Physiol 25:75–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Körner C (2003) Carbon limitation in trees. J Ecol 91:4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Körner C (2006) Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. Tansley Review. New Phytol 172:393–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Körner C (2009) Responses of humid tropical trees to rising CO2. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:61–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kostiainen K, Kaakinen S, Warsta E, Kubiske ME, Nelson ND, Sober J, Karnosky DF, Saranpää P, Vapaavuori E (2008) Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3. Tree Physiol 28:805–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kostiainen K, Kaakinen S, Saranpää P, Sigurdson BD, Lundqvist SO, Linder S, Vapaavuori E (2009) Stem wood properties of mature Norway spruce after 3 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO2] and temperature. Glob Chang Biol 15:368–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ladeau SL, Clark JS (2006a) Pollen production by Pinus taeda growing in elevated atmospheric CO2. Funct Ecol 20:541–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ladeau SL, Clark JS (2006b) Elevated CO2 and tree fecundity: the role of tree size, interannual variability, population heterogeneity. Glob Chang Biol 12:822–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee HS, Jarvis PJ (1995) Trees differ from crops and from each other in their responses to increases in CO2 concentration. J Biogeogr 22:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee HS, Overdieck D, Jarvis PJ (1998) Biomass, growth and carbon allocation. In: Jarvis PG [ed; assisted by Aitken AM (et al.)]: European forests and global change. The likely impacts of rising CO2 and temperature. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 126–191Google Scholar
  28. Lloyd J, Farquhar GD (2008) Effects of rising temperatures and [CO2] on the physiology of tropical forest trees. Philos Trans R Soc 363:1811–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Long SP, Hutchin P (1991) Primary production in grasslands and coniferous forests in relations to climate change and rising CO2 levels. Ecol Appl 1:139–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lovelock CE, Virgo A, Popp M, Winter K (1999) Effects elevated CO2 concentrations on photosynthesis, growth and reproduction of branches of the tropical canopy tree species Luehea seemannii Tr. & Planch. Plant. Cell Environ 22:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murray MB, Ceulemans R (1998) Will tree foliage be larger and live longer? In: Jarvis PG (ed; assisted by Aitken AM [et al.]): European forests and global change. The likely impacts of rising CO2 and temperature. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 94–125Google Scholar
  32. Nagel J (1985) Wachstumsmodell für Bergahorn in Schleswig-Holstein. Dissertation, Forstwirtsch. Fachbereich, Universität Göttingen, pp 1–124 (in German)Google Scholar
  33. Nedlo JE, Martin TA, Vose JM, Teskey RO (2009) Growing season temperatures limit growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings across a wide geographic transect. Trees 23:751–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norby RJ, Zak DR (2011) Ecological lessons from free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Ecol Evol Syst 42:181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Norby RJ, O’Neill EG, Luxmoore RJ (1986) Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil. Plant Physiol 82:83–89CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R (1999) Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant Cell Environ 22:683–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olszyk D, Apple M, Gartner B, Spicer R, Wise C, Buckner E, Benson-Scott A, Tingey D (2005) Xeromorphy increases in shoots of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco seedlings with exposure to elevated temperature but not elevated CO2. Trees 19:552–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Overdieck D (1986) Long-term effects of an increased CO2 concentration on terrestrial plants. Morphology and reproduction of Trifolium repens L and Lolium perenne L. Int J Biometeorol 30:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Overdieck D (1996) Effect of increasing temperature and CO2 concentration on growth of sycamore maple and European beech. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 25:123–132Google Scholar
  40. Overdieck D, Forstreuter M (1995) Stoffproduktion junger Buchen (Fagus sylvatica L.) bei erhöhtem CO2-Angebot. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 24: 323–330 (in German, with English abstract)Google Scholar
  41. Overdieck D, Reining F (1986) Effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on perennial ryegrass and white clover competing in managed model-ecosystems. I. Phytomass production (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.). Oecologia Plantarum 21:357–366Google Scholar
  42. Overdieck D, Strassemeyer J (2005) Gas exchange of Gingko biloba leaves at different CO2 concentration levels. Flora 200:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Overdieck D, Reid C, Strain BR (1988) The effects of preindustrial and future CO2 concentrations on growth, dry matter production and the C/N-relationship in plants at low nutrient supply: Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Abelmochus esculentus (okra) and Raphanus sativus (radish). Angewandte Botanik, App Bot 62:119–134Google Scholar
  44. Overdieck D, Kellomäki S, Wang KY (1998) Do the effects of temperature and CO2 interact? In: Jarvis PG [ed; assisted by Aitken AM (et al.)]: European forests and global change. The likely impacts of rising CO2 and temperature. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 236–273Google Scholar
  45. Overdieck D, Ziche D, Böttcher-Jungclaus K (2007) Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations. Tree Physiol 27:261–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Polle A, McKee I, Blaschke L (2001) Altered physiological and growth responses to elevated [CO2] in offspring from holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) mother trees with lifetime exposure to naturally elevated [CO2]. Plant. Cell Environ 24:1075–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analysis of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193:30–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pregitzer KS, King JS, Burton AJ, Brown SE (2000) Responses of tree fine roots to temperature. Research review. New Phytol 147:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pritchard SG, Rogers HH, Prior SA, Peterson CM (1999) Elevated CO2 and plant structure: a review. Glob Chang Biol 5:807–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reining F (1990) Langzeiteffekte von erhöhtem CO2-Angebot auf das Wachstum von Acer pseudoplatanus und Fagus sylvatica. Dissertation, University of Osnabrück, Germany, pp 1–130 (in German)Google Scholar
  51. Rogers HH, Runion CB, Krupa SV (1994) Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment with emphasis on roots and the rhizosphere. Environ Pollut 83:155–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Sage RF, Kubien DS (2007) The temperature response of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ 30:1086–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Saxe H, Canell MGR, Johnsen Ø, Ryan MG, Vourlitis G (2001) Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. Tansley Review no. 123. New Phytol 149:369–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tissue DT, Thomas RB, Strain BR (1997) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment increases growth and photosynthesis of Pinus taeda: a 4 year experiment in the field. Plant Cell Environ 20:1123–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tjoelker MG (1997) Acclimation in plant growth and its determination to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature: interspecific variation among five boreal tree species. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, USAGoogle Scholar
  56. Tognetti R, Cherubini P, Innes JL (2000) Comparative stem-growth rates of Mediterranean trees under background and naturally enhanced ambient CO2 concentrations. New Phytol 146:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Usami T, Lee J, Oikawa T (2001) Interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the growth of Quercus myrsinifolia saplings. Plant Cell Environ 24:1007–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vaz M, Cochard H, Gararini L, Graça J, Chaves MM, Pereira JS (2012) Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings acclimate to elevated CO2 and water stress: photosynthesis, growth, wood anatomy and hydraulic conductivity. Trees 26:1145–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Voelker SL, Muzika RM, Guyette RP, Stambaugh MC (2006) Historical CO2 growth enhancement declines with age in Quercus and Pinus. Ecol Monogr 76:549–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Watanabe M, Watanabe Y, Kitaoka S, Utsugi H, Kita K, Koike T (2011) Growth and photosnthetic traits of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica x L. kaempferi) under elevated CO2 concentration with low nutrient availability. Tree Physiol 31:965–975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Way DA, Oren R (2010) Differential responses to changes in growth temperature between trees from different functional groups and biomes: a review and synthesis of data. Tree Physiol 30:669–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Wertin TM, McGuire MA, Teskey RO (2011) Higher growth temperatures decreased net carbon assimilation and biomass accumulation of northern red oak seedlings near the southern limit of the species range. Tree Physiol 31:1277–1288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ziche D, Overdieck D (2004) CO2 and temperature effects on growth, biomass production, and stem wood anatomy of juvenile Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). J Appl Bot 78:120–132Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter Overdieck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology, Ecology of Woody PlantsTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations