Utilization of an Agro Waste, Groundnut Shell Ash, for Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

  • Nikhilesh S. Trivedi
  • Sachin A. MandavganeEmail author
Conference paper


The work highlights efficient utilization of groundnut shell ash (GSA) for various applications. The production groundnut seeds average about 45,654 metric tons across the globe. Those seeds are used as a food material and for extraction of edible oil. The shells of groundnut seeds are waste, having a high calorific value so its potential is tapped in industries and boilers. Subsequently upon the utilization of biomass, the ash, which is produced, is of ample quantity needs to be addressed properly for its chemical, physical properties and its potential application. GSA is a rich source of micronutrients and improves yield, and is spread on agriculture lands as a soil additive. Groundnut shells are a rich source of fuel. From literature study it is evident that the GSA is used for various applications like stabilization of black cotton soil, adsorption, as a concrete admixture. For the first time, GSA has been evaluated as an adsorbent for 2,4-D removal from aqueous solutions and as a soil additive. GSA was characterized extensively by X-ray fluorescence, BET surface area and SEM image. Results of XRF analysis showed that GSA can be used as a rich source of micronutrients such as MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, K2O and CaO. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a commonly used pesticide, was chosen as a representative adsorbate for studying the effects of various parameters in batch adsorption. BET surface area is found to be 22 m2/gm. SEM image shows a very rough and irregular structure of the GSA surface. Batch adsorption experiment studied to find the effect of adsorbent dose, initial 2,4-D concentration, and equilibrium time. Based on the batch results dosages of GSA/hectare have been recommended for different crops to serve the dual purpose i.e., as an adsorbent and a soil additive.


Biomass Characterization Ash Utilization Micronutrient 



Authors are thankful to the Science and Engineering Research Board, India for providing research grant (SB/S3/CE/077/2013) to undertake the work.


  1. Ahmad, T., Arniza Ghazali, M.R., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Ahmad, A.: Removal of pesticides from water and wastewater by different adsorbents: a review. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part C 28, 231–271 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alabadan, B.A., Olutoye, M.A., Abolarin, M.S., Zakariya, M.: Partial replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC) with bambara groundnut shell ash (BGSA) in concrete. Leonardo Electron. J. Practices Technol. (6), 43–48 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. Bekbolet, M.Y.O., Yucel, I.: Sorption studies of 2,4-D on selected soils. Water Air Soil Pollut. 111, 75–88 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demeyer, A., Nkana, J.C.Voundi, Verloo, M.G.: Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview. Bioresour. Technol. 77, 287–295 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deokar, S.K., Mandavgane, Sachin A.: Rice husk ash for fast removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from aqueous solution. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 33(5), 429–440 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hameed, B.H., Salman, J.M., Ahmad, A.L.: Adsorption isotherm and kinetic modeling of 2,4-D pesticide on activated carbon derived from date stones. J. Hazard. Mater. 163, 121–126 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Khan, M.A., Ashraf, S.M.: Development and characterization of groundnut shell lignin modified phenol formaldehyde wood adhesive. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 13, 347–352 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. Major uses of pesticides: Central insecticides board and registration committee. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India (2014)Google Scholar
  9. Malik, R., Ramteke, D.S., Wate, S.R.: Physico-chemical and surface characterization of adsorbent prepared from groundnut shell by ZnCl2 activation and its ability to adsorb color. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 13, 319–328 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. Malik, S.R., Ramteke, R., Wate, D.S.: Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon. Waste Manag. 27(9), 1129–1138 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Maryam Khoshnood, S.A.: Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticide by graphitic carbon nanostructures prepared from biomasses. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18, 1796–1800 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Njoku, V.O., Hameed, B.H.: Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from corncob by chemical activation with H3PO4 for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid adsorption. Chem. Eng. J. 173, 391–399 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Source United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2013)Google Scholar
  14. Trivedi, NS., Mandavgane, S.A., Kulkarni, B.D.: (2016) Mustard plant ash: a source of micronutrient and an adsorbent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 1–13Google Scholar
  15. Voundi Nkana, J.C., Verloo., A.D.M.G.: Chemical effects of wood ash on plant growth in tropical acid soils. Bioresour. Technol. 63, 251–260 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations