Weed and Herbicide Resistance
Weed management in agriculture has become very problematic and costly due to emergence of herbicide resistance. A world wide catalogue of herbicide resistant weeds (Heap IM, The international survey of herbiside resistant weeds. http://www.weedscience.com. Accessed 18 Apr 2008, 2008) include more than 300 resistant biotypes and Amaranthus weed comprise over 5 % of herbicide resistant biotypes distributed worldwide. There are different groups of herbicides and amaranth weed biotypes showed variable response to those. More than sixty weed species have been identified to resist to PS II (Photo system II) inhibitor, of which nine species belong to genus Amaranthus. More than 90 weed species are known to have evolved resistance to ALS (Acetolactate Synthase) inhibitor of which eight belong to Pigweeds. Amaranthus tuberculatus is one of the three species that has developed resistance against Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) inhibitor. In some cases resistance is evolved against more than one herbicide within a single population or even a single plant, making the control of weed like A. tuberculatus very difficult, which has evolved resistance to five different classes of herbicides. It is possible to transfer resistance trait from weed to crop through weed-crop hybridization.
KeywordsWeed Species Herbicide Resistance Resistant Biotype Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Amaranthus Species
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