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Ethnopharmacological Importance of Western Medicinal Herb, Scutellaria lateriflora

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Abstract

Scutellaria lateriflora also known as American skullcap is a well-known medicinal herb which has been used in traditional medicine and Western materia medica for years. S. lateriflora has exhibited plethora of pharmacological effects. The plant has been shown to affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and other organs such as gastrointestinal tracts, liver, sexual organs, endocrine system, blood, kidney, and muscles. However, chief use of this Western medicinal herb is for the central nervous system pathologies. S. lateriflora has primarily reduced the symptoms associated with hyperarousal disorders. The hyperarousal disorders are seizures, insomnia, pain, spasms, and anxiety. Further, the plant parts are used in various botanical formulations and are currently on the US market. In this article, we describe ethnopharmacological role of S. lateriflora and its medicinal applications in detail. Additionally, we have summarized the mechanism of action attributed to the neuroprotection and other pharmacological actions associated with S. lateriflora.

Keywords

  • Anxiolytics
  • Ethnopharmacology
  • Hyperarousal disorders
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Neuroprotection
  • Scutellaria lateriflora
  • Western herbal medicines

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Fig. 2.1
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Fig. 2.3

Abbreviations

5-HT:

Serotonin

5-HT7 :

Serotonin-7

ACTH:

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AMPARs:

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors

AP-1:

Activated protein 1

BDNF:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BDZ:

Benzodiazepine

CNS:

Central nervous system

COX:

Cyclooxygenase

CREB:

Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein

CRH:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DPPH:

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

GABA:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABAR:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor

IFN-γ:

Interferon-γ

IL:

Interleukin

iNOS:

Nitric oxide synthase

NF-IL6:

Nuclear factor IL-6

NF-kB:

Nuclear factor k-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells

NMDAR:

N-Methyl-D-aspartate

PrP:

Prion protein

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

S. lateriflora :

Scutellaria lateriflora

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

TGF:

Transforming growth factor

TLR2:

Toll-like receptor 2

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor-α

WHM:

Western herbal medicine

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Lohani, M. et al. (2016). Ethnopharmacological Importance of Western Medicinal Herb, Scutellaria lateriflora . In: Tsay, HS., Shyur, LF., Agrawal, D., Wu, YC., Wang, SY. (eds) Medicinal Plants - Recent Advances in Research and Development. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1085-9_2

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