Lexical Development



It seems that the vocabulary growth by children of Indonesian immigrants is slower than children of native Mandarin-speaking Taiwanese mothers. The finding is different from that of previous studies on lexical development of children of immigrants, whose lexical development is not different from native children (Tsay et al. in Language development by children of new female immigrants. NSC Report, 2005; Kuo in Mandarin acquisition by children of Vietnamese mothers in Taiwan. Crane, Taipei, 2008). Tsay et al. (Language development by children of new female immigrants. NSC Report, 2005) included mothers from mainland China, whose Mandarin is native just like Taiwanese mothers. They may have messed the results. Kuo (Mandarin acquisition by children of Vietnamese mothers in Taiwan. Crane, Taipei, 2008) findings about no differences between children of Vietnamese mothers could be due to the fact that Vietnamese has more Chinese-based lexicon than Indonesian. Thus, innateness perspective alone could not explain lexical development.


Semantic Category Chinese Child Spontaneous Speech Taiwanese Child Loan Word 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Akhtar, N. (2002). Relevance and early word learning. Journal of Child Language, 29, 677–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan, K. (1977). Classifiers. Language, 53, 285–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alves, M. (1999). What’s so Chinese about Vietnamese? The Ninth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  4. Anglin, J. (1995). Classifying the world through language: Functional relevance, cultural significance, and category name learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19, 161–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates, E., Marchman, V., Thal, D., Fenson, L., Dale, P., Reznick, S., et al. (1994). Developmental and stylistic variation in the composition of early vocabulary. Journal of Child Language, 21, 85–123.Google Scholar
  6. Batteen, C., Davis, N., Fuller, J., Kuo, J. Y.-C., Li, D., Sera, M., et al. (2007). Classifier use by adult Mandarin speakers. The 5th Conference of the European Association of Chinese Linguistics. Leipzig, Germany. September 4–7.Google Scholar
  7. Beeghly, M., Bretherton, I., & Mervis, C. (1986). Mothers’ internal state language to toddlers: The socialization of psychological understanding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornstein, M., & Cote, L. (2004). Cross-linguistic analysis of vocabulary in young children: Spanish, Dutch, French, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, and American English. Child Development, 75, 1115–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chien, Y.-C., Lust, B., & Chiang, C.-P. (2003). Chinese children’s comprehension of count-classifiers and mass-classifiers. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 12, 91–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choi, S., & Gopnik, A. (1995). Early acquisition of verbs in Korean: A cross-linguistic study. Journal of child language, 22, 497–529Google Scholar
  11. Clark, E. (1987). The principle of contrast: A constraint on language acquisition. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), Mechanisms of language acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, E. (1993). The lexicon in acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Erbaugh, M. S. (1986). Taking stock: The development of Chinese noun classifiers historically and in young children. In C. Craig (Ed.), Noun classes and categorization (pp. 399–436). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang, F. (1985). An experiment on the use of classifiers by 4-to-6-Year-Olds. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 17, 384–392.Google Scholar
  15. Fernald, A., & Mazzie, C. (1991). Prosody and focus in speech to infants and adults. Developmental Psychology, 27, 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gelman, S., Coley, J., Rosengran, K., Hartman, E., & Pappas, A. (1998). Beyond labeling: The role of maternal input in the acquisition of richly structured categories. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(253), 1.Google Scholar
  17. Gentner, D. (1981). Some interesting differences between verbs and nouns. Cognition and Brain Theory, 4(2), 161–178.Google Scholar
  18. Gentner, D. (1983). Nouns and verbs. Symposium Presented at the Meeting of the New England Child Language Association. Medford, MA: Tufts University.Google Scholar
  19. Gentner, D. (1988). Cognitive determinism: Object reference and relational reference. Paper presented at the Boston University Child Language Conference, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  20. Gentner, D. (1999). Individuality and early word meaning. Paper presented at the VIIIth International Congress for the Study of Child Language, San Sebastian, Spain.Google Scholar
  21. Gleason, J. B., & Ratner, N. B. (2012). The development of Language (8th ed.). Cambridge: Pearson.Google Scholar
  22. Goldfield, B. (1993). Noun bias in maternal speech to one-year-olds. Journal of Child Language, 20, 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Golinkoff, R., Shuff-Bailey, M., Olguin, R., & Ruan, W. (1995). Young children extend novel words at the basic level: Evidence for the principle of categorical scope. Developmental Psychology, 31, 494–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall, D. (1994). How mothers teach basic-level and situation-restricted count nouns. Journal of Child Language, 21, 391–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Houston-Price, C., Plunkett, K., & Harris, P. (2005). “Word learning wizardry” at 1;6. Journal of Child Language, 32, 175–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hsu, J. (1996). A study of the stages of development and acquisition of Mandarin Chinese by children in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane.Google Scholar
  27. Hu, Q. (1993). The acquisition of Chinese classifiers by young Mandarin-speaking children. Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University.Google Scholar
  28. Huang, Y. V. (2007). The use of count and mass classifiers in Chinese preschoolers. MA thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.Google Scholar
  29. Jiang, Y.-W. (2000). Basic-level effects in Chinese lexicon. MA thesis, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu.Google Scholar
  30. Kuo, J. Y.-C. (1999). Strategies for learning classifiers. In Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum, pp. 424–442.Google Scholar
  31. Kuo, J. Y.-C. (2008). Mandarin acquisition by children of Vietnamese mothers in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane.Google Scholar
  32. Kuo, J. Y.-C. (2015). Lexical development by children of Thai immigrants in Taiwan. Studies in English Language and Literature, 35, 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. Loke, K. K. (1996). Norms and realities of Mandarin shape classifiers. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 31(2), 1–22.Google Scholar
  34. Markman, E. (1987). How children constrain the possible meanings of words. In U. Neisser (Ed.), Concepts and conceptual development: Ecological and intellectual factors in categorization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Markman, E., & Wachtel, G. (1988). Children’s use of mutual exclusivity to constrain the meanings of words. Cognitive Psychology, 20, 121–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Myers, J. (2000). Rules vs. analogy in Mandarin classifier selection. Language and Linguistics, 1(2), 187–209.Google Scholar
  37. Poulin-Dubois, D. (1995). Object parts and the acquisition of the meaning of names. In K. Nelson & Z. Reger (Eds.), Children’s language (Vol. 8). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Sachs, J., Brown, R., & Salerno, R. (1976). Adults’ speech to children. In W. won Raffler Engel & Y. Lebrun (Eds.), Baby talk and infant speech. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  39. Sera, M. D., Johnson, K., & Kuo, J. Y.-C. (2013). Classifiers augment and maintain shape-based categorization in Mandarin speakers. Language and Cognition, 5(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sneddon, J. N. (2004). The Indonesian Language: Its history and role in modern society. Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  41. Storkel, H. (2004). Do children acquire dense neighborhoods? An investigation of similarity neighborhoods in lexical acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 201–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tai, J. (1994). Chinese classifier systems and human categorization. In M. Chen & T. Ovid (Eds.), In honor of professor William S-Y. Wang: Interdisciplinary studies on language and language change (pp. 479–494). Taipei: Pyramid.Google Scholar
  43. Tardif, T. (1996). Nouns are not always learned before verbs: Evidence from Mandarin speaker’s early vocabulary. Developmental Psychology, 32, 492–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tardif, T., Gelman, S., & Xu, F. (1999). Putting the “noun bias” in context: A comparison of English and Mandarin. Child Development, 70, 620–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tingley, E., Gleason, J., & Hooshyar, N. (1994). Mothers’ lexicon of internal state words in speech to children at mealtime. Journal of Communication Disorders, 27, 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tomasello, M. (1995). Pragmatic contexts for early verb learning. In M. Tomasello & W. Merriman (Eds.), Beyond names for things: Young children’s acquisition of verbs. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Tsay, S., Ke, H., Tsai, J., Lin, H., & Kuo, Y. 蔡素娟、柯華葳、蔡志賢、林惠玲、郭怡君. (2005). 新移民女性及其子女的發展與適應研究-新移民女性之子女的語言發展研究 I “Xinyimin nuxing ji qi zinu de fazhan yu shiying yanjiu—xinyimin nuxing zhi zinu de yuyan fazhan yanjiu” [Language development by children of new female immigrants]. NSC report. (NSC 93-2420-H-194-003-KD)Google Scholar
  48. Tversky, B., & Hemenway, K. (1984). Objects, parts and categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 113, 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Chiayi UniversityChiayiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations