Phonological Development



The results of the present study show that the Mandarin phonological development by the children of immigrant mothers might be influenced by their mothers’ Mandarin (L2) because they made similar errors. Since the same errors were observed among children of mothers of different nationalities, they cannot be attributed to the mothers’ L1 alone. Despite the similar exposure to Taiwan Mandarin as native children, children of immigrants made unique errors. This indicates the importance of primary interlocutors, their mothers. Children of immigrants have received input mediated through universal constraints, whose rankings are dynamic in the process of development. Innatism and interactionism may not be mutually exclusive as the proposal for ‘innately guided learning’ (Gould and Marler 1987; Jusczyk and Bertoncini in Learn Speech 31:217–238, 1988; Marler in The Epigenesist of mind: Essays on biology and cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, 1991).


Phonological Development Alveolar Nasal Alveolar Affricate Indonesian Mothers Vietnamese Mothers 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Chiayi UniversityChiayiTaiwan

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