Properties of Particleboard from Kelempayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) Wood

  • Nur Sakinah Mohamed TamatEmail author
  • Nur Farahin Yusoff
  • Jamaludin Kasim
  • Wan Mohd Nazri Wan Abdul Rahman
Conference paper


Growing demand for wood based panels has led to a shortage of wood, especially rubberwood, which has been the main raw material in the production of the Malaysian furniture and panel board industries. Kelempayan has potential to be used as alternative resources for the coming years because it is a fast growing species and can be cultivated in Malaysia as tropical country. This study was conducted to explore the potential of kelempayan for particleboard manufacture and to characterize water resistance and mechanical properties of kelempayan particleboard as affected by various resin contents and board densities. Single layer particleboard was fabricated from 2 mm particle size and bonded with phenol formaldehyde (PF) adhesive at 145 °C of hot pressing temperature. Three different levels of resin contents (7, 9, 11 %) and board densities (500, 600, 700 kg/m3) were used as variable factors. The experimental panels were tested for modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bonding strength (IB) and water resistance according to the procedures defined by Malaysian Standard. Overall results showed that samples made from density 700 kg/m3 and 11 % resin content had the highest MOE and MOR value compare to others. Internal bonding strength also indicated the similar pattern. However, thickness swelling of the panels were very poor than requirements. We concluded that kelempayan can have potential for particleboard manufacture and promising better qualities especially for exterior purposes. Dimensional stability need to be enhanced by using various treatments or addition of chemical such as wax.


Kelempayan Particleboard Phenol formaldehyde 



The authors would like to thank Institute of Graduate Studies of Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia for providing funding support. In addition, the authors thank Malayan Adhesive Company (MAC) Sdn. Bhd. Shah Alam Selangor for providing adhesive for this research. The authors also acknowledged Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang for providing raw materials, necessary facilities and much guidance.


  1. Anonymous (2005a) Malaysian Standard MS 1787: part 10: 2005, Wood-based panels—determination of modulus elasticity in bending and bending strength. Department of Malaysian Standard, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2005b) Malaysian Standard MS 1787: part 11: 2005, Wood-based panels—determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the panel. Department of Malaysian Standard, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2005c) Malaysian Standard MS 1787: part 6: 2005, Wood-based panels—determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water. Department of Malaysian Standard, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2006) Malaysian Standard MS 1036: 2006, Wood-based panels—particleboards-specification (First Revision). Department of Malaysian Standard, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashori A, Nourbaksh A (2008) Effect of press cycle time and resin content on physical and mechanical properties of particleboard panels made from the underutilized low-quality raw materials. Ind Crops Prod 28:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayrilmis N, Kwon JH, Han TH (2012) Effect of resin type and content on properties of composite particleboard made of a mixture of wood and rice husk. Int J Adhes Adhes 38:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowyer JL, Shmulsky R, Haygreen JG (2007) Forest products and wood science, an introduction. Blackwell Publishing, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Colak S, Nemli G, Demirkir C, Aydin I, Demiral S (2010) Utilization potential of waste from window joints for particleboard. J Compos Mater 45(1):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guler C, Copur Y, Akgul M, Buyuksari U (2007) Some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantations. J Appl Sci 7(5):755–758Google Scholar
  10. Ismail J, Jusoh MZ, Mohd Sabri H (1995) Anatomical variation in planted kelempayan (Neolamarckia cadamba rubiaceae). IAWA J 16(3):277–287Google Scholar
  11. Jamaludin K (2006) Properties of particleboard and thermoplastic board from buluh semantan (Gigantochloa scortechinii). University Publication Centre (UPENA), Shah AlamGoogle Scholar
  12. Jamaludin K, Zalifah M, Nurrohana A, Siti Nor Ain T, Nor Suziana S, Nor Ashikin R (2010) Properties of phenol formaldehyde particleboard from oil palm trunk particles. Paper Presented at theXXI IUFRO Conference in Seoul, South KoreaGoogle Scholar
  13. Lim SC, Gan KS, Thi BK (2005) Identification and utilization of lesser-known commercial timbers in Peninsular Malaysia. For Res Inst Malaysia 32:139–258Google Scholar
  14. Mohd Hazim MA, Rokiah H, Hiziroglu S, Nurul Syuhada S, Othman S (2013) Properties of particleboard made from rubberwood using modified starch as binder. Compos Part B 50:259–264Google Scholar
  15. Nemli G, Ozturk I, Aydin I (2005) Some of the parameters influencing surface roughness of particleboard. Build Environ 40:1337–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nemli G, Yildiz S, Gezer ED (2008) The potential for using the needle litter of scotch pine (Pinussylvestris L.) as a raw material for particleboard manufacturing. Bioresour Technol 99:6054–6058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nourbakhsh A (2008) Mechanical and thickness swelling of particleboard composites made from three-year-old poplar clones. J Reinf Plast Compos. doi: 10.1177/0731684408097771 Google Scholar
  18. Nur Farahin Y, Jamaludin K, Hazwani L, Muslyza CH, Nor Farhana J (2014) Evaluation of 3-layer oil palm frond particleboard. Int J Latest Res Sci Technol 3(6):183–186Google Scholar
  19. Rachtanapun P, Sattayarak P, Ketsamak N (2012) Correlation of density and properties of particleboard from coffee waste with urea-formaldehyde and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanates. J Compos Mater 46(15):1839–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sari B, Ayrilmis N, Nemli G, Baharoglu M, Gumuskaya E, Bardak S (2012a) Effects of chemical composition of wood and resin type on properties of particleboard. Lignocellulose 1(3):174–184Google Scholar
  21. Sari B, Nemli G, Baharoglu M, Bardak S, Zekovic E (2012b) The role of solid content of adhesive and panel density on the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of particleboard. J Compos Mater. doi: 10.1177/0021998312446503 Google Scholar
  22. Siti Norbaini S, Shaikh Abdul Karim YZ, Jamaludin K (2013) Mechanical properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous three layered particleboard composite in relation on different resin content. Mater Sci Chem Eng 699:637–640Google Scholar
  23. Taramian A, Doosthoseini K, Sayyed Ahmad M, Faezipour M (2007) Particleboard manufacturing: an innovative way to recycle paper sludge. Waste Manage 27:1739–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Youngquist JA (1999) Wood Based Composites and Panel Products. In Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material. Gen. Tech. Rept. FPL-GRT-113. USDA Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI, pp. 1–31 (Chapter 10)Google Scholar
  25. Wang SY, Yang TH, Lin LT, Lin CJ, Tsai MJ (2007) Properties of low-formaldehyde emmision particleboard made from recycled wood-waste chips sprayed with PMDI/PF resin. Build Environ 42:2472–2479Google Scholar
  26. Zheng Y, Pan Z, Zhang R, Jenkins BM, Blunk S (2007) Particleboard quality characteristics of saline jose tall wheat grass and chemical treatment effect. Bioresour Technol 98:1304–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Sakinah Mohamed Tamat
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nur Farahin Yusoff
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jamaludin Kasim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wan Mohd Nazri Wan Abdul Rahman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAJengkaMalaysia

Personalised recommendations