Effect of Tree Portion and Distance from Pith on Specific Gravity, Fiber Properties and Mechanical Properties of Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) Wood

  • Jamaludin Kasim
  • Siti Nadzirah Misfar
  • Nur Sakinah Mohamed Tamat
  • Nurfaizah Abd Latib
Conference paper


Specific gravity, fiber properties, and mechanical properties are the important factors to be considered in determining the end use of wood material. This study was conducted to determine the effect of tree portion and distance from pith on specific gravity, fiber properties (fiber length, fiber diameter), and mechanical properties of Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) wood. Three Kelampayan trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ranging from 35 to 41 cm were harvested from UiTM Jengka, Pahang forest and were used in this study. Tree portion and distance from pith showed significant effect on fiber length, fiber diameter, modulus of rupture (MOR), compression parallel to grain, and shear parallel to grain. Specific gravity was not affected. Mechanical properties of Kelampayan wood in general increases significantly with increase in tree portion. MOR shows a positive correlation with tree portion. Modulus of elasticity also increased insignificantly with tree portion. Shear parallel to grain was also found to increase significantly with longer fiber length value. Compression parallel to grain according to tree portion was found to be significantly higher at the middle portion (25.01 MPa) than top (21.65 MPa) and bottom (20.34 MPa). All mechanical properties of Kelampayan wood increased significantly from pith to near bark. Modulus of rupture (MOR) at near bark (40.58 MPa) was found to be higher at near pith (32.11 MPa) with a positive correlation (r = 0.293*).


Kelampayan Fiber properties Basic properties Mechanical properties 


  1. Bowyer JL, Haygreen JG, Shmulsky R (2007) Forest products and wood science: an introduction, Fifth edn, Blackwell PublishingGoogle Scholar
  2. British Standard, BS 373 (1957) Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber, British Standard Institution, ISBN 0 580 00684 0Google Scholar
  3. Choo KT, Lim SC (1999) Timber Notes—Light Hardwoods VI, Timber Technology Buletin, Timber Technology Centre (ITC), Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), No. 16, ISSN:139–258Google Scholar
  4. Horn RA (1978) Morphology of pulp fibre from hardwoods and influence on paper strength, Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  5. Jorge F, Quilhó T, Pereira H (2000) Variability of fibre length in wood and bark in Eucalyptus globulus. IAWA J 21(1):41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Laran (n.d.) Malaysian Timber Council. Accessed 28 Jan 2012
  7. Lim SC, Gan KS, Thi BK (2005) Identification and Utilization of Lesser—Known Commercial Timbers in Peninsular Malaysia. 4. Kelempayan, Melembu, Membuloh and Mempari, Timber Technology Buletin, Timber Technology Centre (ITC), Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), No. 32, ISSN:139–258Google Scholar
  8. Matan N, Kyokong B (2003) Effect of Moisture Content on Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 25(3):327–340 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. Moya R, Munoz F (2010) Physical and mechanical properties of eight fast—growing plantation species in costa rica. J Trop For Sci 22(3):317–328Google Scholar
  10. Panshin AJ, De Zeeuw C (1970) Textbook of wood technology, vol 1. McGraw Book Co., Ltd., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Panshin AJ, De Zeeuw C (1980) Textbook of wood technology, 4th edn. McGraw Book Co., Ltd., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Shanavas A, Kumar BM (2006) Physical and mechanical properties of three agroforestry tree species from Kerala. J Trop Agric India 44(1–2):23–30Google Scholar
  13. Wilson JG (1954) Specific gravity of wood substances. For Prod J 16(1):55–61Google Scholar
  14. Zziwa A et al (2006) Physical and mechanical properties of some less utilised tropical timber tree species growing in Uganda. Uganda J Agric Sci 12(1):29–37 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamaludin Kasim
    • 1
  • Siti Nadzirah Misfar
    • 2
  • Nur Sakinah Mohamed Tamat
    • 2
  • Nurfaizah Abd Latib
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAJengkaMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia

Personalised recommendations