Application of Sustainable Site Planning and Management (SM) Criterion in Green Building Index (GBI) Assessment for Hill Land Development in Penang—A Case Study

  • Nadira AhzaharEmail author
  • Intan Bayani Zakaria
  • Siti Ismahani Ismail
Conference paper


Demands for residential area in Penang Island have increased drastically from year to year. In contrast, the suitable lands for development sector become scarce. Those conditions lead to the encroachment to the few available development at the hill land development area. Regarding to this situation, various green rating tools namely Green Building Index (GBI), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and BCA Green Mark are applied to evaluate sustainable site planning and management (SM) of the new development. However, application of these Green Rating Tools is still lacking at the hill land development area. As such, the aim of this case study is to apply GBI, LEED, and BCA Green Mark on SM criterion at the study area located at hill land development at Sungai Ara, Penang. There are several methods to obtain the points regarding the SM criterion such as site evaluation and inspection and also conduct interview sessions with planner and consultant. The result obtained from the evaluation shows that GBI achieved 79.7 % of the overall SM points while LEED and BCA Green Mark achieved 36.4 % and 20.7 %, respectively. From this result, it shows that GBI obtained the highest percentage for SM criterion and the most suitable green rating tool to rate SM criterion at the hill land development area in Penang.


Residential Hill Land Development SM criterion 


  1. Anilarasu A (2010) Hill land development challenges in Penang Island. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Chua SC, Oh TH (2011) Green progress and prospect in Malaysia. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(2011):2850–2861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Leong CT (2009) Building structure for the future—the green way. Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM). ISSN 0128 - 4347Google Scholar
  4. Lim GE (2010) Fund raising dinner ‘the development and economic future of Penang on 10th May 2010 [Online]. Accessed on June 2013
  5. Salma NK (2001) The sustainable Penang initiative: creating state society partnership for sustainable development. IIEDGoogle Scholar
  6. Shari Z, Jaafar MFZ, Salleh E, Lim CH (2010) The potential of sustainable building rating system in the Malaysian Building Industry. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  7. United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013) Green building. Accessed on 10/6/2013

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadira Ahzahar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Intan Bayani Zakaria
    • 1
  • Siti Ismahani Ismail
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Building Surveying, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & SurveyingUniversiti Teknologi MARASeri IskandarMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MARAKepala BatasMalaysia

Personalised recommendations