Dumbbell-Shaped Inline Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Glucose Detection

  • Asiah LokmanEmail author
  • Hamzah Arof
  • Sulaiman Wadi Harun
Conference paper


A simple inline Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a dumbbell-shape structure is demonstrated for measurement of glucose concentration in distilled water. The MZI is fabricated using an arcing process of a fusion splicer to form two bulges, which are separated by a tapered waist. The MZI generates a good reflected interference spectrum where the dip wavelength is red-shifted with the increase of glucose concentration. This is due to the increase of the surrounding refractive index (RI), which reduces the phase difference between the core and cladding modes. As the glucose concentration increases from 0 to 12 %, the dip wavelength increases from 1554.419 to 1554.939 nm in a quadratic manner with the coefficient of determination of 0.9818. It is also found that the sensor has a sensitivity of 0.028 nm/% with a linearity of 99.5 % and limit of detection of 6.5 %. This preliminary result shows that the proposed probe can be used as a sensor to detect glucose concentration in distilled water.


Inline Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) Refractive index (RI) Dumbbell-shape Glucose detection 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the University of Malaya and Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) under the High Impact Research Grant Scheme (Grant No: D000009-16001).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asiah Lokman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamzah Arof
    • 1
  • Sulaiman Wadi Harun
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Photonics Research CenterUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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