Effects of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Behavior and Transportation Energy Efficiency in Korea
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This study evaluates transportation energy efficiency with respect to various forms of urban structures. Empirical models are developed by using the population and employment of the cities in Korea. Spatial structure is measured by the degree of concentration and the clustering index and uses relative and weighted indices. A two-stage least squares model is developed because spatial structure primarily affects changes in travel distance, which consequently affect traffic volume and transportation energy consumption. Empirical results vary with city size. Small cities with deconcentrated and clustered areas are transportation energy efficient and effective in promoting clustering within a specific region and enhancing accessibility for employment and service. On the other hand, promoting concentration and declustering patterns are a more effective strategy to decentralize population, mitigate agglomeration diseconomies, and ultimately reduce transportation energy consumption in large cities. Therefore, population and employment level within a spatial distribution should be understood to adopt an optimal spatial strategy for influencing travel behavior and energy consumption.
KeywordsSpatial structure Transportation energy Two-stage least square model Agglomeration diseconomies
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