The Remanufacturing Industry and Fashion

  • Pammi SinhaEmail author
  • Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
  • Geetha Dissanayake
Part of the Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes book series (EFEPP)


Remanufacturing is a crucial element of the circular economy (APSRG in Triple win: the economic, social and environmental case for remanufacturing, 2014b). Products at the end of their lives are reclaimed, disassembled and eventually returned to the consumer as fully functional products (APSRG in Remanufacturing: towards a resource efficient economy, 2014a). Increasing concerns about the predicted global rise of the middle-class population and their consumption patterns (to 5 billion by 2030) as resources become scarcer, environmental standards and regulations become tighter and more stringent. The circular economy approach rewards businesses that operate on the cradle-to-cradle concept, extracting value from waste (Ellen MacAruther Foundation in Towards the circular economy, opportunities for the consumer goods sector, 2013). Along with the environmental benefits, the remanufacturing promises to contribute to job creation, innovations and new business models, new marketing channels and product service systems (APSRG in Triple win: the economic, social and environmental case for remanufacturing, 2014b). This chapter examines the term “remanufacture” and presents a definition for remanufactured fashion, and it considers the differences between the terms “upcycle” and “remanufacture” and introduces the notion of product labelling of remanufactured garments.


Remanufacture Upcycle Fashion Like-new Reuse Repair Product labelling 


  1. APSRG (2014a) Remanufacturing: towards a resource efficient economy. The All-Party Parliamentary Sustainable Resource Group, Mar,
  2. APSRG (2014b) Triple win: the economic, social and environmental case for remanufacturing. Dec 2014,…/apsrgapmg-triplewin.pdf
  3. Automotive Parts Remanufacture Association (APRA)
  4. Braungart M, McDonough W (2002) Cradle to cradle. Remaking the Way We Make Things, VintageGoogle Scholar
  5. Braungart M, McDonough W (2009) Cradle to cradle: re-making the way we make things. Vintage Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassidy D, Han S (2013) Upcycling fashion for mass production. In: Gardetti MA, Torres AL (eds) Sustainability in fashion and textiles: values, design, production and consumption. Greenleaf Publishing, pp 148–163Google Scholar
  7. Ellen MacAruther Foundation (2013) Towards the circular economy, opportunities for the consumer goods sector,
  8. Goodall P, Rosamund E, Harding J (2014) A review of the state of the art in tools and techniques used to evaluate remanufacturing feasibility. J Cleaner Prod 81:1–15, Elsevier Ltd., 14 June 2014
  9. Gray C, Charter M (2008) Remanufacturing and product design: designing for the 7th generation. Available at:
  10. Guide VDR (2000) Production planning and control for remanufacturing: industry practice and research needs. J Oper Manag 18:467–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hatcher GD, Ijomah WL, Windmill JFC (2014) A network model to assist ‘design for remanufacture’ integration into the design process. J Clean Prod 64:244–253 (Elsevier Ltd.)Google Scholar
  12. Hazen BT, Overstreet RE, Jones-Farmer LA, Field HS (2012) The role of ambiguity tolerance in consumer perception of remanufactured products. Int J Prod Econ 135:781–790 (Elsevier Ltd.)Google Scholar
  13. He Y (2015) Acquisition pricing and remanufacturing decisions in a closed-loop supply chain. Int J Pro Econ 163:48–60 (Elsevier Ltd.)Google Scholar
  14. Ijomah WL, McMahon CA, Hammond GP, Newman ST (2007) Development of design for remanufacturing guidelines to support sustainable manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 23:712–719Google Scholar
  15. Lund RT (1984) Remanufacturing. Technol Rev 87(2):19–23, 28–29 (MIT)Google Scholar
  16. Michaud C, Llerena D (2006) An economic perspective on remanufactured products: industrial and consumption challenges for life cycle engineering. In: proceedings of 13th CIRP international conference on life cycle engineering. Leuven, May 31–June 2 2006, pp 543–548Google Scholar
  17. Mollenkopf M, Russo I, Frankel F (2007) The returns management process in supply chain strategy. Int J Phys Distrib Logistics Manag 37(7):568–592, Google Scholar
  18. Nasr N, Thurston M (2006) Remanufacturing: a key enabler to sustainable product systems. Rochester Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  19. Pagell M, Wu Z, Murthy NN (2007) The supply chain implications of recycling. Bus Horiz 50:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pilz in Thornton K (1994) Salvo in Germany—Reiner Pilz, SalvoNEWS, 12 Oct 1999, p 14 ( Accessed 17 July 2015
  21. Steinhilper R, Hieber M (2001) Remanufacturing-the key solution for transforming downcycling into upcycling of electronics. In: Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  22. Sundin E (2004) Product and process design for successful remanufacturing. Published doctoral dissertation. Linköping’s University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  23. Sung K (2015) A review on upcycling: current body of literature, knowledge gaps and a way forward. In: Part I, ICEES 2015: 17th international conference on environmental and earth sciences, vol 17, no 4, Venice, Italy, 13–14 Apr 2015Google Scholar
  24. Upcycle magazine (2009) What is upcycling? Accessed 14 July 2015
  25. USITC (2012) Remanufactured goods: an overview of the United States and global industries, markets, and trade, United States international trade commission.
  26. Vermeer D (2014) 7 upcycling companies that are transforming the fashion industry, Accessed 14 July 2015

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pammi Sinha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
    • 2
  • Geetha Dissanayake
    • 3
  1. 1.University of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.SGS Hong Kong LimitedHong KongHong Kong
  3. 3.University of MoratuwaMoratuwaSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations