In juvenile justice systems ‘vulnerability’ is generally framed in terms of the concept of ‘risk’. As discussed in this chapter, such framing tends to individualise the nature of vulnerability and to reinforce the idea that juvenile offending is primarily a personal responsibility.


Young People Crime Prevention Juvenile Justice Restorative Justice Juvenile Justice System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allard, T., Chrzanowski, A., & Stewart, A. (2013). Targeting crime prevention: Identifying communities that generate chronic and costly offenders. ACI Reports, Research and Public Policy Series No. 123. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Government. (2014). Closing the gap: Prime Minister’s report. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. (2009). Social Justice Report 2009, Ch. 2: Justice reinvestment – A new solution to the problem of Indigenous over-representation in the criminal justice system. Sydney: AHREOC.Google Scholar
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2013). Youth detention population in Australia 2013. Juvenile Justice Series No. 13. Cat. No. JUV31. Canberra: AIHW.Google Scholar
  5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014a). Youth justice in Australia 2012-13. AIHW Bulletin 120. Cat. No. AUS179. Canberra: AIHW.Google Scholar
  6. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014b). Youth justice fact sheet no. 27. Long-term trends in youth justice supervision: 2012-13. Cat.noJUV43. Canberra: AIHW.Google Scholar
  7. Carrington, K., & Pereira, M. (2009). Offending youth: Sex, crime and justice. Sydney: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  8. Case, S. (2007). Questioning the “evidence” of risk that underpins evidence-led youth justice interventions. Youth Justice: An International Journal, 7(2), 91-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chatterton, P., & Hollands, R. (2003). Urban nightscapes: Youth cultures, pleasure spaces and corporate power. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cunneen, C. (1999). Criminology, genocide and the forced removal of Indigenous children from their families. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 32(2), 124-138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cunneen, C., & White, R. (2011). Juvenile justice: Youth and crime in Australia. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cunneen, C., Baldry, E., Brown, D., Brown, M., Schwartz, M., & Steel, A. (2013). Penal culture and hyperincarceration: The revival of the prison. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. Development Crime Prevention Consortium. (1999). Pathways to prevention: Developmental and early intervention approaches to crime in Australia. Canberra: National Crime Prevention, Attorney-General’s Department.Google Scholar
  14. Goldson, B. (2005). Taking liberties: Policy and the punitive turn. In H. Hendrick (Ed.), Child welfare and social policy. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  15. Goldson, B. (Ed). (2011). Youth in crisis? ‘Gangs’, territoriality and violence. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Goldson, B. (2014). Youth justice in a changing Europe: Crisis conditions and alternative visions. In European Commission and the Council of Europe, Perspectives on Youth: 2020 what do you see? Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. Available at:
  17. Gooda, M. (2010). National family violence prevention forum AIATSIS and CDFVR. Justice reinvestment: A new strategy to address family violence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Wednesday 19 May 2010.Google Scholar
  18. Hutchinson, T. (2014). A slap on the wrist? The conservative agenda in Queensland, Australia. Youth Justice, DOI:  10.1177/1473225414557320 [].
  19. International Centre for Prison Studies. (ICPS 2013). World prison brief. Prison brief: Highest to lowest rates: entire world. London: Kings College.Google Scholar
  20. Krisberg, B. (2005). Juvenile justice: Redeeming our children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lacey, N. (2008). The prisoners’ dilemma. Political economy and punishment in contemporary democracies. The Hamlyn Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. La Vigne, N., Bieler, S., Cramer, L., Ho, H., Kotonias, C., Mayer, D., McClure, D., Pacifici, L., Parks, E., Peterson, B., & Samuels, J. (2014). Justice reinvestment initiative state assessment report. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute and Bureau of Justice Assistance U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  24. MacDonald, R. (2006). Social exclusion, youth transitions and criminal careers: Five critical reflections on ‘risk’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 39(3), 371-383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKenzie, J. (2013). Insights from the Coalface: The value of justice reinvestment for young Australians. Sydney: Australian Youth Affairs Coalition.Google Scholar
  26. Muncie, J. (2013). International juvenile (in)justice: Penal severity and rights compliance. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(2), 43-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muncie, J., & Goldson, B. (Eds.). (2006). Comparative youth justice. London; Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2013). OECD employment outlook 2013. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Palmer, D. (1999). Talking about the problems of young Nyungars. In R. White (Ed.), Australian youth subcultures: On the margins and in the mainstream. Hobart: Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  30. Palmer, D., & Collard, L. (1993). Aboriginal young people and youth subcultures. In R. White (Ed.), Youth subcultures: Theory, history and the Australian experience. Hobart: National Clearinghouse for Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  31. Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA: The Belnap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Priday, E. (2006). New directions in juvenile justice: Risk and cognitive behaviourism. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 17(3), 343-359.Google Scholar
  33. Standing, G. (2011). The precariat: The new dangerous class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  34. Toumbourou, J. (1999). Implementing communities that care in Australia: A community mobilization approach to crime prevention. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 122. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  35. Ungar, M. (2011). The social ecology of resilience: Addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American Journal of Otheropsychiatry, 81(1), 1-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wacquant, L. (2008). Urban outcasts: A comparative sociology of advanced marginality. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  37. Weatherburn, D. (2014). Arresting incarceration: Pathways out of Indigenous imprisonment. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
  38. White, R. (1996). The poverty of the welfare state: Managing an underclass. In P. James (Ed.), The state in question: Transformations of the Australian state. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  39. White, R. (2008). Class analysis and the crime problem. In T. Anthony & C. Cunneen (Eds.), The critical criminology companion. Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
  40. White, R. (2013). Youth gangs, violence and social respect: Exploring the nature of provocations and punch-ups. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. White, R., & Cunneen, C. (2015). Social class, youth crime and justice. In B. Goldson & J. Muncie (Eds.), Youth crime and justice: Critical issues. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. White, R., & Wyn, J. (2013). Youth and society: Exploring the social dynamics of youth experience. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level. New York: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rob White
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversity of TasmaniaAustralia

Personalised recommendations