Youth as Researchers and Participants

Engaging Marginalized Voices in Rural India
  • Noel L. Shadowen
Part of the New Research – New Voices book series (NRNV)


This chapter focuses on a collaborative research effort between researchers, an NGO partner, and a local community in a participatory action research (PAR) and program evaluation case study with youth in the Villapurum District of southern India. I illustrate challenges and strategies for empirical data collection with marginalized youth in a particular ecological context.


Research Process Corporal Punishment Participatory Action Research Child Participant SHADOWEN Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Asadullah, M. N., & Yalonetzky, G. (2010). Inequality of educational opportunity in India: Changes over time and across states. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5146. Retrieved from:
  2. ASER Centre. (2014). Annual Status of Education Report: 2013. Retrieved from ASER Centre website:
  3. Ayres, R., & Torrijos Simon, M. (2003). Education, poverty, and sustainable livelihoods in Tamil Nadu: Inequalities, opportunities, and constraints. Review of Political Economy, 15, 211-229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhattacharya, U. (2013). Mediating inequalities: exploring English-medium instruction in a suburban Indian village school. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14, 164-184. doi:  10.1080/14664208.2013.791236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell-Page, R. M., & Shaw-Ridley, M. (2013). Managing ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research with vulnerable populations. Health Promotion Practices, 14, 485-490. doi:  10.1177/1524839913482924 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chauhan, C. P. S. (2009). Education for all in India: A second look. The International Journal of Lifelong Education, 28, 227-240. doi:  10.1080/02601370902757091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke, P. (2003). Culture and classroom reform: The case of the district primary education project, India. Comparative Education, 39, 27-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Communities Rising. (2013). What we do. Retrieved from Communities Rising website:
  9. Communities Rising. (2014). Communities Rising annual report: 2013. Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  10. Dinan, J., & Garcia, Y. (1997). Participatory research in Venezuela: 1973 to 1991. In R. McTaggart (Ed.), Participatory action research: International contexts and consequences (pp. 151-186). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dip Kapoor Affiliation. (2007). Gendered-Caste violations and the cultural politics of voice in Orissa, India. Gender, Place, and Culture, 14, 609-616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghose, S. (2003). The Dalit in India. Social Research, 70, 83-109.Google Scholar
  13. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Government of India: Ministry of Home Affairs. (2011). Census of India: Tamil Nadu. Retrieved from Census of India website:
  15. Govinda, R. (2009). In the name of the ‘poor and marginalized’? Politics of NGO activism with Dalit women in rural north India. Journal of South Asian Development, 4, 45-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta, R., Sankhe, S., Dobbs, R., Woetzel, J., Madgavkar, A., & Hasyagar, A. (2014). From poverty to empowerment: India’s imperative for jobs, growth, and effective basic services. Retrieved from McKinsey Global Institute website:
  17. Hacker, K. (2013). Community-based participatory research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Human Rights Watch. (2007). Hidden Apartheid: Caste discrimination against India’s “Untouchables”. Report 19, No. 3c. Retrieved from:
  19. International Dalit Solidarity Network. (2014). Caste discrimination and human rights (9th ed., prepared for the United Nations). Retrieved from:
  20. Jaspal, R. (2011). Caste, social stigma, and identity processes. Psychology and Developing Societies, 23, 27-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kendall, P. C., & Wilcox, L. (1979). Self-control in children: Development of a rating scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47(6), 1020-1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leach, F., & Sitaram, S. (2007). The sexual harassment and abuse of adolescent schoolgirls in south India. Journal of Education, Citizenship, & Social Justice. 2, 257-277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McCoy, E. (2013). Communities rising parent surveys. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sport. (2014). National Youth Policy 2014. Retrieved from:
  25. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights. (2009). Eliminating corporal punishment in schools. Retrieved from the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights in India website:
  26. Office of the Registrar General & Census Comissioner for India. (2011). India Census Data 2011. Retrieved from
  27. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2000). Measure of student engagement. Retrieved from:
  28. Phillipson, R. (2009). Linguistic imperialism continued. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Plan International & Overseas Development Institute. (2010). Prevention pays: The economic benefits of ending violence in schools report. Retrieved from:
  30. Prabhu, K. S. (2001). Socio-economic security in the context of pervasive poverty: A case study in India. Geneva: International Labor Organization.Google Scholar
  31. Radermacher, H., & Sonn, C. (2007). Toward getting it right: Participatory action research (PAR) with an advocacy organization. The Australian Community Psychologist, 19, 62-73.Google Scholar
  32. Seiter, L. N., & Nelson, L. J. (2011). An examination of emerging adulthood in college studentsand non-students in India. Journal of Adolescent Research, 26, 506-536. DOI:  10.1177/0743558410391262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shanmugan, K. R. (2012). Monitorable indicators and performance: Tamil Nadu. (Monograph 17/2012). Retrieved from The Madras School of Economics.
  34. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J. B. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(18), 1737-1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Steinberg, A., Brymer, M. J., Decker, K. B., & Pynoos, R. S. (2004). The University of California at Los Angeles post traumatic stress disorder reaction index. Current Psychiatry Reports, 6, 96-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tamil Nadu Government. (2011). Census data 2011. Retrieved from Tamil Nadu Government website:
  37. The World Bank. (2013). New country classifications. Retrieved from the World Bank:
  38. United Nation’s Chidlren’s Fund. (2013). State profiles: Tamil Nadu. Retrieved from UNICEF website:
  39. Vindhya, U. (2007). Quality of women’s lives in India: Some findings from two decades of psychological research on gender. Feminism and Psychology, 17, 337-356. DOI:  10.1177/0959353507079088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noel L. Shadowen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations