Skip to main content

Year in Review 2015

Part of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law book series (YIHL,volume 18)

Abstract

The year 2015 was marked by several noteworthy events with particular relevance to international humanitarian law, such as: the continuance of the conflict in Syria, the escalation of violence in Libya, and the eruption of a conflict in Yemen; the official closure of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and several key decisions by international, hybrid, and national courts related to the adjudication of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide; the establishment by the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) of a Joint Investigative Mechanism in Syria, and the rising number of States that have ratified the Arms Trade Treaty. This chapter addresses a number of these issues amongst other events of note. The Year in Review is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all events that occurred in 2015, but rather a sampling of events of note with particular relevance to the international humanitarian law.

Keywords

  • International humanitarian law
  • International criminal law
  • Armed conflict
  • War crimes
  • Arms control
  • Terrorism

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-6265-141-8_9
  • Chapter length: 62 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-6265-141-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    See Van Oijen and Dorsey 2016, p. 216.

  2. 2.

    Human Rights Watch (2016) World Report 2016. www.hrw.org/world-report/2016. Accessed 13 April 2016, p. 55.

  3. 3.

    UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (2015) Annual Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Afghanistan. http://unama.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/poc_annual_report_2015_final_14_feb_2016.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2016, pp. 1–3.

  4. 4.

    Nordland R (2015) Taliban End Takeover of Kunduz After 15 Days. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/14/world/asia/taliban-afghanistan-kunduz.html. Accessed 13 April 2016.

  5. 5.

    Doctors Without Borders (2015) Afghanistan: MSF Demands Explanations After Deadly Airstrikes Hit Hospital in Kunduz http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/afghanistan-msf-demands-explanations-after-deadly-airstrikes-hit-hospital-kunduz. Accessed 13 April 2016.

  6. 6.

    Cadman T (2015) Religious war in Central African Republic. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/06/religious-war-central-african-republic-150629104901894.html. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  7. 7.

    Chonghaile CN (2015) Central African Republic militias poised to sign disarmament agreement http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/may/08/central-african-republic-militias-disarmament-agreement-undp. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  8. 8.

    The Guardian (2015) Central African Republic: violent sectarian clashes erupt in Bangui. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/27/central-african-republic-violent-sectarian-clashes-erupt-in-bangui. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  9. 9.

    UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2015) UN: Central African Republic at risk of becoming the world’s largest forgotten humanitarian crisis. http://www.unhcr.org/553e49ec6.html. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  10. 10.

    UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2217 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2217.

  11. 11.

    Laville S and Willsher K (2015) France launches criminal inquiry into alleged sex abuse by peacekeepers. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/07/france-criminal-inquiry-alleged-sex-abuse-french-soldiers-un-central-african-republic. Accessed 16 June 2016.

  12. 12.

    Al Jazeera (2016) ‘Sickening’ sex abuse alleged in CAR by UN peacekeepers. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/sex-abuse-alleged-car-peacekeepers-160331183645566.html. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  13. 13.

    Laville S (2015) UN human rights chief admits delay to inquiry into peacekeeper abuse claims. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/08/un-human-rights-peacekeeper-abuse-claims-inquiry-delay. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  14. 14.

    The Guardian (2015) Senior Lord’s Resistance Army commander surrenders to US troops. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/06/lords-resistance-army-commander-surrenders-central-african-republic. Accessed 15 April 2016. See below, Sect. 9.2.1.4.

  15. 15.

    Mattioli-Zeltner G (2015) Taking Justice to a New Level: The Special Criminal Court in the Central African Republic. http://www.jurist.org/hotline/2015/07/G%C3%A9raldine-Mattioli-Zeltner-CAR-Special-Court.php. Accessed 15 April 2016. See below, Sect. 9.2.3.3.

  16. 16.

    Amnesty International (2016) Annual Report 2015/2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2016/02/annual-report-201516/. Accessed 19 April 2016, p. 123.

  17. 17.

    Brodzinsky S (2015) Farc peace talks: Colombia nears historic deal after agreement on justice and reparations. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/24/farc-peace-talks-colombia-nears-historic-deal-after-agreement-on-justice-and-reparations. Accessed 19 April 2016.

  18. 18.

    Carrillo-Santarelli N (2015) An Assessment of the Colombian-FARC ‘Peace Jurisdiction’ Agreement. http://www.ejiltalk.org/an-assessment-of-the-colombian-farc-peace-jurisdiction-agreement/. Accessed 19 April 2016.

  19. 19.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 225.

  20. 20.

    Mohamed Y and Hassan A (2015) More than 100 dead as militants, Egyptian army clash in North Sinai. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-security-sinai-idUSKCN0PB3VJ20150701. Accessed 19 April 2016.

  21. 21.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, pp. 227–228.

  22. 22.

    BBC (2015) Sinai plane crash: Egypt dismisses IS claim. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34690936. Accessed 19 April 2016.

  23. 23.

    BBC (2015) Mexican tourists killed by Egyptian security forces. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34241680. Accessed 19 April 2016.

  24. 24.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 319.

  25. 25.

    Al Arabiya (2015) Iraqi forces ‘liberate’ Diyala from ISIS: officer. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2015/01/26/Iraq-forces-liberate-Diyala-province-from-ISIS-officer-.html. Accessed 25 April 2016; Morris L (2015) Kurds say they have ejected Islamic State militants from large area in northern Iraq. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/kurds-say-they-have-ejected-islamic-state-from-a-big-area-in-northern-iraq/2015/01/21/ac459372-a1c6-11e4-b146-577832eafcb4_story.html. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  26. 26.

    Arango T (2015) ISIS Fighters Seize Government Headquarters in Ramadi, Iraq. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/16/world/middleeast/isis-fighters-seize-government-headquarters-in-ramadi-iraq.html. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  27. 27.

    Micallef J (2015) Lessons From the Second Battle of Tikrit: March 2-April 4 2015. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-v-micallef/lessons-from-the-second-b_b_7049430.html. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  28. 28.

    The Guardian (2015) US-led coalition launches air strikes in Iraq ahead of Mosul offensive. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/20/coalition-air-strikes-isis-iraq-syria-mosul-kobani. Accessed 25 April 2016; Botelho G and Karadsheh J (2015) U.S.-led coalition launches 17 airstrikes on ISIS targets around Tikrit. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/26/middleeast/iraq-isis-tikrit/. Accessed 25 April 2016; Michaels J (2015) Intense U.S. airstrikes support Iraqi ground offensive in Ramadi. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/07/13/ramadi-offensive-militias-coalition-airstrikes/30096897/. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  29. 29.

    IBC (2015) Iraq 2015: A Catastrophic Normal. https://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2015/. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  30. 30.

    Damon A, Alkhshali H and Ellis R (2015) Mass graves in Tikrit might contain 1,700 bodies. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/06/middleeast/iraq-mass-graves/. Accessed 25 April 2016; Saul H (2015) Isis mass execution: Soldier describes surviving brutal Tikrit massacre by playing dead. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-mass-execution-soldier-describes-surviving-brutal-tikrit-massacre-by-playing-dead-10159320.html. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  31. 31.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 321.

  32. 32.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the human rights situation in Iraq in the light of abuses committed by the socalled Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant and associated groups, UN Doc. A/HRC/28/18. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/HRC/28/18. Accessed 25 April 2016, p. 6.

  33. 33.

    Conlon K, Hanna J and Tawfeeq M (2015) Sinister ISIS plot kills 120, wounds 140 in Iraq. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/07/18/middleeast/iraq-violence/. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  34. 34.

    Yeginsu C (2015) Turkey Attacks Kurdish Militant Camps in Northern Iraq. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/26/world/middleeast/turkey-attacks-kurdish-militant-camps-in-northern-iraq.html. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  35. 35.

    Karadeniz T and Gurses E (2015) Iraqi PM asks NATO to press Turkey to pull troops from north Iraq. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-russia-turkey-davutogl-idUSKBN0TR14F20151208. Accessed 25 April 2016.

  36. 36.

    Beaumont P (2015) Israel-Palestine: outlook bleak as wave of violence passes six-month mark. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/31/israel-palestine-violence-knife-attacks-west-bank-gaza. Accessed 6 May 2016.

  37. 37.

    See Paulussen et al. 2015, pp. 224–225.

  38. 38.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Report of the independent commission of inquiry established pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution S-21/1, UN Doc. A/HRC/29/52. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/HRC/29/52. Accessed 6 May 2016.

  39. 39.

    See below, Sect. 9.2.1.

  40. 40.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 321.

  41. 41.

    Al-Warfalli A (2015) Islamic State fights rival group and eastern forces in Libya. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-idUSKCN0QJ19420150814. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  42. 42.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 384.

  43. 43.

    Al Jazeera (2015) ISIL video shows Christian Egyptians beheaded in Libya. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2015/02/isil-video-execution-egyptian-christian-hostages-libya-150215193050277.html. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  44. 44.

    Malsin J and Stephen C (2015) Egyptian air strikes in Libya kill dozens of Isis militants. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/16/egypt-air-strikes-target-isis-weapons-stockpiles-libya. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  45. 45.

    Amnesty International (2015) Libya: Mounting evidence of war crimes in the wake of Egypt’s airstrikes. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/02/libya-mounting-evidence-war-crimes-after-egypt-airstrikes/. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  46. 46.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 378.

  47. 47.

    Pengelly M and Stephen C (2015) Islamic State leader in Libya ‘killed in US airstrike’. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/14/us-airstrike-isis-leader-libya. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  48. 48.

    El Yaakoubi A (2015) Libyan factions sign U.N. deal to form unity government. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-idUSKBN0U00WP20151217. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  49. 49.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 395.

  50. 50.

    Al Jazeera (2013) Making sense of Mali’s armed groups. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/01/20131139522812326.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Graham D (2015) Mali’s Tangled Mix of Jihad and Civil War. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/11/mali-hotel-hostage-crisis/417021/. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  51. 51.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 395.

  52. 52.

    UN Security Council (2015) Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali, UN Doc. S/2015/426. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/426. Accessed 3 May 2016, pp. 4–6.

  53. 53.

    RFI (2015) Mali: qui est derrière les attaques dans le centre du pays? http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20150412-deux-soldats-maliens-tues-une-attaque-le-centre-pays/. Accessed 16 June 2016; Tapily M, Walker P and English C (2015) Mali attack: more than 20 dead after terrorist raid on Bamako hotel. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/20/mali-attack-highlights-global-spread-extremist-violence. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  54. 54.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Malian rivals sign peace deal. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/06/malian-rivals-sign-peace-deal-150620173301883.html. Accessed 3 May 2016; Jezequel J (2015) Mali’s peace deal represents a welcome development, but will it work this time? http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jul/01/mali-peace-deal-a-welcome-development-but-will-it-work-this-time. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  55. 55.

    RFI (2015) Mali: dans le Nord, «terroristes» contre rebelles. http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20151226-mali-rebelles-islamistes-nord-CMA-mnla. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  56. 56.

    BBC (2015) Fighting continues in Myanmar’s troubled Kokang region. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-31527384. Accessed 16 June 2016; Al Jazeera (2015) Myanmar Kokang rebels ‘kill dozens’ of soldiers. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/myanmar-kokang-rebels-kill-dozens-soldiers-150213072401121.html. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  57. 57.

    Mclaughlin T and Yadana Zaw H (2012) Under pressure from China, Kokang rebels declare Myanmar ceasefire. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rebels-ceasefire-idUSKBN0OR0T120150611. Accessed 15 April 2016; Moe W (2015) Why Kokang Rebels Are Giving Fits to Burma’s Military. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/05/06/why-kokang-rebels-are-giving-fits-to-burmas-military-myanmar/. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  58. 58.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Myanmar declares state of emergency in war-torn region. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/myanmar-declares-state-emergency-war-torn-region-150217124515270.html. Accessed 15 April 2016.

  59. 59.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 422; Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 275.

  60. 60.

    Mark M (2015) Boko Haram’s ‘deadliest massacre’: 2,000 feared dead in Nigeria. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/09/boko-haram-deadliest-massacre-baga-nigeria. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  61. 61.

    Amnesty International (2015) Nigeria: Massacre Possibly Deadliest in Boko Haram’s History. https://www.amnesty.org/en/press-releases/2015/01/nigeria-massacre-possibly-deadliest-boko-haram-s-history/. Accessed 12 May 2016. The exact number of dead remains unconfirmed.

  62. 62.

    Fessy T (2015) Boko Haram attack: What happened in Baga? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30987043. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  63. 63.

    See, e.g., BBC (2015) Boko Haram attack caps week of bloodshed in Nigeria. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33401810. Accessed 16 June 2016; Dutta K (2015) Boko Haram ‘has abducted, raped and enslaved 2,000 women in reign of terror’. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/boko-haram-has-abducted-raped-and-enslaved-2000-women-in-reign-of-terror-10174152.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Sieff K (2015) War-torn Nigerian town shows devastating legacy of Boko Haram. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/war-torn-nigerian-town-shows-devastating-legacy-of-boko-haram/2015/04/11/d7628ce6-dcad-11e4-b6d7-b9bc8acf16f7_story.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Abubakar A (2015) Boko Haram blamed for decapitations. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/28/world/boko-haram-nigeria-village-raid/. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  64. 64.

    Boffey D (2015) Boko Haram declares allegiance to Islamic State. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/07/boko-haram-suicide-bombers-50-dead-maiduguri. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  65. 65.

    The Guardian (2015) Nigerian army ‘rescues 200 girls and 93 women’ in strike against Boko Haram. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/28/nigeria-army-rescue-boko-haram-girls-sambisa-forest. Accessed 16 June 2016; Karimi F and Abubakar A (2015) Nigeria: 160 more women, children rescued from Boko Haram camp. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/30/africa/nigeria-boko-haram-hostages-rescued/. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  66. 66.

    Muscati S and Segun M (2015) One year after #BringBackOurGirls, Boko Haram still holds hundreds. http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/one-year-after-bringbackourgirls-boko-haram-still-holds-hundreds. Accessed 16 June 2016; Alter C (2015) 200 Girls Rescued From Boko Haram Camps Are Not the Chibok Schoolgirls http://time.com/3839035/nigeria-boko-haram-girls-rescue/. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  67. 67.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 423.

  68. 68.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Buhari secures historic election victory in Nigeria. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/03/opposition-party-declares-victory-nigeria-election-150331135603507.html. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  69. 69.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 424.

  70. 70.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 275.

  71. 71.

    ICC (2015) Report on Preliminary Examination Activities 2015. https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-PE-rep-2015-Eng.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016, pp. 44–51.

  72. 72.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 282; BBC (2014) Pakistan army launches ‘major offensive’ in North Waziristan. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-27858234. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  73. 73.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 282.

  74. 74.

    Saifi S and Mullen J (2015) Suicide bombings in Christian area of Pakistani city kill at least 14. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/15/asia/pakistan-violence/. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  75. 75.

    Hashim A (2015) Pakistan’s Ismaili community hit by deadly attack. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/05/pakistan-karachi-bus-gunmen-150513053952497.html. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  76. 76.

    BBC (2015) Pakistan Shia mosque blast in Shikarpur kills dozens. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-31056086. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  77. 77.

    BBC (2015) Pakistan Taliban: US drone ‘kills militants’ in tribal region. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-30671107. Accessed 16 June 2016.

  78. 78.

    Whitlock C, Ryan M and Miller G (2015) Obama apologizes for attack that killed two hostages. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-operation-kills-al-qaeda-hostages-including-american/2015/04/23/8e9fcaba-e9bd-11e4-aae1-d642717d8afa_story.html. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  79. 79.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 507.

  80. 80.

    BBC (2015) Somalia: Al-Shabab attack kills 15 in Mogadishu hotel. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34691602. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  81. 81.

    France 24 (2015) Al Shabaab militants attack African Union base in Somalia. http://www.france24.com/en/20150901-al-shabaab-militants-attack-african-union-base-somalia. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  82. 82.

    The Guardian (2015) Death toll from Kenyan university massacre expected to rise. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/04/death-toll-from-kenyan-university-massacre-expected-to-rise. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  83. 83.

    Mutiga M (2015) Kenya launches air strikes against al-Shabaab camps in Somalia. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/06/kenya-launches-air-strikes-against-al-shabaab-camps-in-somalia. Accessed 16 June 2016; Jorgic D and Honan E (2015) Kenya says it destroys two al Shabaab camps in Somalia. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-kenya-security-military-idUSKBN0MX0EA20150406. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  84. 84.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Somalia: US drone strike killed top Al-Shabab figure. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/somalia-drone-strike-killed-top-al-shabab-figure-150206111810686.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Reuters (2015) U.S. drone strike killed al Shabaab leader Garaar in Somalia: Pentagon. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-somalia-security-usa-idUSKBN0ME2QI20150318. Accessed 16 June 2016; BBC (2015) Somali al-Shabab commanders ‘killed in drone strike’. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33550390. Accessed 16 June 2016; Reuters (2015) Suspected drone strike kills al Shabaab fighters in Somalia: police. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-somalia-security-idUSKBN0TB0LO20151122. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  85. 85.

    Kaplan M (2015) In Somalia, African Union Troops Accused of Killing Dozens of Civilians Following Grenade Attack. http://www.ibtimes.com/somalia-african-union-troops-accused-killing-dozens-civilians-following-grenade-2018439. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  86. 86.

    Intergovernmental Authority on Development (2015) IGAD Mediators profoundly deplore the escalation of fighting in south Sudan and urge the warring Parties to immediately cease all hostilities. http://igad.int/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1134:igad-mediators-profoundly-deplore-the-escalation-of-fighting-in-south-sudan-and-urge-the-warring-parties-to-immediately-cease-all-hostilities&catid=61:statements&Itemid=150. Accessed 16 June 2016; Doctors Without Borders (2015) South Sudan: Rape and killing in Unity state. http://www.msf.org.uk/article/south-sudan-rape-and-killing-in-unity-state. Accessed 17 May 2016.

  87. 87.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 332; Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 520.

  88. 88.

    Anderson M (2015) South Sudan peace deal greeted with quiet optimism by humanitarian world. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/aug/27/south-sudan-peace-deal-greeted-with-quiet-optimism-by-humanitarian-world. Accessed 17 May 2016.

  89. 89.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Scores of civilians, including children, killed in South Sudan in October. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/10/24/scores-of-civilians-including-children-killed-in-south-sudan-in-october.html. Accessed 17 May 2016.

  90. 90.

    Al Jazeera (2015) UN warns of worsening situation in Sudan’s Darfur. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/06/sudan-darfur-security-council-150610235631458.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Human Rights Watch (2015) Sudan: Mass Rape by Army in Darfur. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/02/11/sudan-mass-rape-army-darfur. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  91. 91.

    Al Jazeera (2015) UN warns of worsening situation in Sudan’s Darfur. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/06/sudan-darfur-security-council-150610235631458.html. Accessed 16 June 2016; Gatten E (2015) UN peacekeeping force turns blind eye to mass rape in Darfur, victims say. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/un-peacekeepers-turn-blind-eye-to-mass-rape-in-darfur-victims-say-a6725756.html. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  92. 92.

    Amnesty International (2015) Sudan: Attacks in South Kordofan ‘constitute war crimes’. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/08/sudan-attacks-in-south-kordofan-constitute-war-crimes/. Accessed 16 June 2016; Amnesty International (2015) Sudan: Don’t We Matter?: Four Years of Unrelenting Attacks Against Civilians in Sudan’s South Kordofan State. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr54/2162/2015/en/. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  93. 93.

    Doctors Without Borders (2015) Sudan: MSF Hospital Bombed in South Kordofan. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/sudan-msf-hospital-bombed-south-kordofan. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  94. 94.

    Smith D (2015) Sudan’s Omar al-Bashir extends 26-year presidency with 94.5 % of the vote. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/27/sudan-bashir-elected-majority-vote. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  95. 95.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 535.

  96. 96.

    Onishi N (2015) Omar al-Bashir, Leaving South Africa, Eludes Arrest Again. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/16/world/africa/omar-hassan-al-bashir-sudan-south-africa.html. Accessed 16 May 2016; See below, Sect. 9.2.1.4, p. 26, at footnote 208.

  97. 97.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 350; Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 547.

  98. 98.

    Sary G (2015) Syria conflict: Who are the groups fighting Assad? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34710635. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  99. 99.

    BBC (2015) Syria crisis: Where key countries stand. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-23849587. Accessed 16 June 2016; Fantz A (2015) War on ISIS: Who’s doing what? http://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/20/world/war-on-isis-whos-doing-what/. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  100. 100.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 547.

  101. 101.

    Ibid.

  102. 102.

    Taylor G (2015) Assad steps up chemical attacks despite Obama pledge he rid Syria of weapons. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/jun/17/bashar-assad-steps-chemical-attacks-despite-obama-/. Accessed 16 June 2016; Pannell I (2015) Syria civilians still under chemical attack. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34212324. Accessed 16 June 2016; Barnard A and Senguptamay S (2015) Syria Is Using Chemical Weapons Again, Rescue Workers Say. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/07/world/middleeast/syria-chemical-weapons.html. Accessed 18 May 2016. See below Sect. 9.3.2

  103. 103.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Human Rights Council: Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, UN Doc. A/HRC/30/48. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session30/Documents/A_HRC_30_48_ENG.doc. Accessed 18 May 2016; Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 550.

  104. 104.

    Human Rights Watch, above n 2, p. 547.

  105. 105.

    UN General Assembly, above n 103, p. 21.

  106. 106.

    Ibid., pp. 21–22.

  107. 107.

    UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2254 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2254; Sengupta S and Sanger DE (2015) After Years of War in Syria, U.N. Passes Resolution on Talks. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/19/world/middleeast/syria-talks-isis.html. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  108. 108.

    Amnesty International, above n 16, p. 597.

  109. 109.

    BBC (2015) Ukraine crisis: Fierce fighting after Minsk peace deal. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31449981. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  110. 110.

    BBC (2015) Ukraine crisis: Leaders agree peace roadmap. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31435812. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  111. 111.

    Reuters (2015) Killings of soldiers and civilians fray Ukraine’s ceasefire. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-ukraine-crisis-casualties-idUSKBN0OR15U20150611. Accessed 16 June 2016; The Economist (2015) The war in Ukraine’s east has come back to Kiev. http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21663138-soldiers-riot-over-terms-peace-deal-and-post-maidan-government-may-crack-apart-war. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  112. 112.

    Kramer (2015) A Bleak Future in Eastern Ukraine’s Frozen Zone. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/11/world/europe/ukraine-frozen-zone-virtual-reality.html. Accessed 18 May 2016.

  113. 113.

    Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) (2015) Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine: 16 August to 15 November 2015. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/UA/12thOHCHRreportUkraine.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2016, p. 2.

  114. 114.

    Bayoumy Y and Ghobari M (2015) Yemen president quits, throwing country deeper into chaos. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-security-houthis-idUSKBN0KV0HT20150122. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  115. 115.

    See, e.g., Al Jazeera (2015) Houthis and Hadi loyalists battle for control of Aden. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/yemen-aden-150404090350157.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  116. 116.

    Al Jazeera (2015) Saudi and Arab allies bomb Houthi positions in Yemen. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2015/03/saudi-ambassador-announces-military-operation-yemen-150325234138956.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  117. 117.

    Thompson N and Torre I (2015) Yemen: Who’s joining Saudi Arabia’s fight against the Houthis? http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/27/world/yemen-saudi-coalition-map/. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  118. 118.

    Al-Batati S and Fahimapril K (2015) War in Yemen Is Allowing Qaeda Group to Expand. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/17/world/middleeast/khaled-bahah-houthi-rebel-yemen-fighting.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  119. 119.

    Shaheen K (2015) US drone strike kills Yemen al-Qaida leader Nasir al-Wuhayshi. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/16/yemen-al-qaida-leader-nasir-al-wuhayshi-killed-us-drone-strike. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  120. 120.

    Human Rights Watch (2015) Yemen: Airstrike on Camp Raises Grave Concerns. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/01/yemen-airstrike-camp-raises-grave-concerns. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  121. 121.

    Human Rights Watch (2015) Yemen: Factory Airstrike Killed 31 Civilians. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/15/yemen-factory-airstrike-killed-31-civilians-0. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  122. 122.

    Human Rights Watch (2015) Yemen: Coalition Strikes on Residence Apparent War Crime. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/07/27/yemen-coalition-strikes-residence-apparent-war-crime. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  123. 123.

    Brumfield B and Shelbayah S (2015) Report: Saudi Arabia used U.S.-supplied cluster bombs in Yemen. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/05/03/middleeast/yemen-hrw-cluster-munitions-saudi-arabia/index.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  124. 124.

    Human Rights Watch (2015) Yemen: Houthis Used Landmines in Aden. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/05/yemen-houthis-used-landmines-aden. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  125. 125.

    OHCHR (2016) Press briefing notes on Yemen. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16923&LangID=E. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  126. 126.

    UN Security Council (2015) Letter dated 16 November 2015 from the President of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2015/874. http://www.icty.org/x/file/About/Reports%20and%20Publications/CompletionStrategy/151116_icty_progress_report_en.pdf. Accessed 3 May 2016, Annex 1, para 5.

  127. 127.

    Ibid, paras 12–13.

  128. 128.

    Ibid, paras 14 and 17.

  129. 129.

    Ibid, para 16.

  130. 130.

    Ibid, paras 18 and 20.

  131. 131.

    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (2015) 20th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide: Prosecutor Serge Brammertz pays tribute to the victims. http://www.icty.org/en/press/20th-anniversary-srebrenica-genocide-prosecutor-serge-brammertz-pays-tribute-victims. Accessed 3 May 2016; and ICTY (2015) President Meron addresses Srebrenica Genocide 20th Anniversary Commemoration at Potočari Memorial. http://www.icty.org/en/press/president-meron-addresses-srebrenica-genocide-20th-anniversary-commemoration-poto%C4%8Dari-memorial. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  132. 132.

    ICTY (2015) Petar Jojić, Jovo Ostojić, and Vjerica Radeta charged with Contempt of Court. http://www.icty.org/en/press/petar-joji%C4%87-jovo-ostoji%C4%87-and-vjerica-radeta-charged-contempt-court. Accessed 30 May 2016.

  133. 133.

    ICTY, Prosecutor v Vujadin Popović, Ljubiša Beara, Drago Nikolić, Radivoje Miletić & Vinko Pandurević, Judgement, 30 January 2015, Case No. IT-05-88-A (Popović).

  134. 134.

    ICTY (2015) Appeals Chamber upholds convictions of five senior Bosnian Serb officials for Srebrenica and Žepa crimes. http://www.icty.org/en/press/appeals-chamber-upholds-convictions-five-senior-bosnian-serb-officials-srebrenica-and-%C5%BEepa. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  135. 135.

    Ibid.

  136. 136.

    Popović, above n 133, para 557.

  137. 137.

    Ibid, paras 1710–1719.

  138. 138.

    Ibid, paras 1836 and 1947.

  139. 139.

    Ibid, paras 772–775.

  140. 140.

    Ibid, paras 1059–1070.

  141. 141.

    Ibid, para 2113.

  142. 142.

    Ibid, paras 430–443.

  143. 143.

    Ibid, paras 1755–1759.

  144. 144.

    ICTY, Prosecutor v Zdravko Tolimir, Judgement, 8 April 2015, Case No. IT-05-88/2-A (Tolimir).

  145. 145.

    ICTY (2015) Appeals Chamber upholds Tolimir’s convictions for genocide and unanimously upholds life sentence. http://www.icty.org/en/press/appeals-chamber-upholds-tolimirs-convictions-genocide-and-unanimously-upholds-life-sentence. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  146. 146.

    Tolimir, above n 144, paras 150 and 269–270.

  147. 147.

    Ibid, para 221.

  148. 148.

    Ibid, paras 229, 230 and 233–235.

  149. 149.

    Ibid, paras 434–435 and 649.

  150. 150.

    Ibid, para 236.

  151. 151.

    Ibid, para 648.

  152. 152.

    ICTY, Prosecutor v Jovica Stanišić & Franko Simatović, Judgement, 9 December 2015, Case No. IT-03-69-A (Stanišić & Simatović).

  153. 153.

    ICTY (2015) Appeals Chamber Orders Retrial of Jovica Stanišić and Franko Simatović. http://www.icty.org/en/press/appeals-chamber-orders-retrial-jovica-stani%C5%A1i%C4%87-and-franko-simatovi%C4%87. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  154. 154.

    Stanišić & Simatović, above n 152, para 4.

  155. 155.

    Ibid, paras 2–3.

  156. 156.

    Ibid, para 6.

  157. 157.

    Ibid, paras 79–80.

  158. 158.

    Ibid, paras 87–88.

  159. 159.

    Ibid, paras 88 and 90.

  160. 160.

    Ibid, paras 104–108.

  161. 161.

    Ibid, paras 126–129.

  162. 162.

    UN Security Council (2015) Security Council Press Statement on Closure of International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc12188.doc.htm. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  163. 163.

    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) (2015) The Appeals Chamber Hears Oral Arguments in the Nyiramasuhuko et al. Case. http://unictr.unmict.org/en/news/appeals-chamber-hears-oral-arguments-nyiramasuhuko-etal-case. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  164. 164.

    ICTR, The Prosecutor v Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, Arsène Shalom Ntahobali, Sylvain Nsabimana, Alphonse Nteziryayo, Joseph Kanyabashi and Élie Ndayambaje, Judgement, 14 December 2015, Case No. ICTR-98-42-A (Butare).

  165. 165.

    ICTR (2015) Appeals Chamber Delivers Judgement in the Nyiramasuhuko et al. Case. http://unictr.unmict.org/en/news/appeals-chamber-delivers-judgement-nyiramasuhuko-etal-case. Accessed 9 May 2016.

  166. 166.

    Butare, above n 164, paras 2–7.

  167. 167.

    Ibid, paras 13–18.

  168. 168.

    Ibid, paras 19–27.

  169. 169.

    See Ibid, para 3539.

  170. 170.

    Ibid, paras 378 and 397–398.

  171. 171.

    Ibid, paras 2136 and 2139–2141.

  172. 172.

    Ibid, paras 3523, 3526 and 3538.

  173. 173.

    Ibid, para 3532.

  174. 174.

    Ibid, para 3535.

  175. 175.

    Ibid, para 3529.

  176. 176.

    Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT) (2015) President Meron addresses the UN Security Council. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/president-meron-addresses-un-security-council-0. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  177. 177.

    MICT (2015) President Meron Presents Third Annual Report to the United Nations General Assembly. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/president-meron-presents-third-annual-report-united-nations-general-assembly. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  178. 178.

    ICTY (2015) Tribunal Begins Transfer of Judicial Records to MICT. http://www.icty.org/en/press/tribunal-begins-transfer-judicial-records-mict. Accessed 3 May 2016.

  179. 179.

    MICT (2015) Transfer of all closed cases’ records from the ICTY to the MICT is finalised. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/transfer-all-closed-cases%E2%80%99-records-icty-mict-finalised. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  180. 180.

    MICT (2015) United Nations and the Netherlands sign agreement on Mechanism headquarters. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/united-nations-and-netherlands-sign-agreement-mechanism-headquarters. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  181. 181.

    MICT (2015) President Meron addresses the UN Security Council. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/president-meron-addresses-un-security-council-0. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  182. 182.

    MICT (2015) Rwandan Genocide Fugitive Arrested in the DRC. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/rwandan-genocide-fugitive-arrested-drc. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  183. 183.

    Ibid.

  184. 184.

    MICT, Prosecutor v Milan Lukić, Decision on Milan Lukić’s Application for Review, 7 July 2015, Case No. MICT-13-52-R.1, para 2.

  185. 185.

    Ibid, paras 17, 23, 31 and 37.

  186. 186.

    MICT, Prosecutor v Milan Lukić, Decision on Prosecutor’s Motion to Strike Milan Lukić’s Notice of Appeal of Decision on Application for Review, 13 November 2015, Case No. MICT-13-52-R.1, p. 2.

  187. 187.

    MICT, Prosecutor v Sreten Lukić, Decision on Sreten Lukić’s Application for Review, 8 July 2015, Case No. MICT-14-67-R.1, para 3.

  188. 188.

    Ibid, paras 11, 18 and 22.

  189. 189.

    Ibid, paras 6 and 24.

  190. 190.

    Ibid, para 6.

  191. 191.

    MICT, Prosecutor v Jean Uwinkindi, Decision on Uwinkindi’s Request for Revocation, 22 October 2015, Case No. MICT-12-25-R14.1.

  192. 192.

    Prosecutor v Jean Uwinkindi, Decision on Uwinkindi’s Request for Revocation, 22 October 2015, Case No. MICT-12-25-R14.1, para 7.

  193. 193.

    Ibid.

  194. 194.

    Ibid, para 41.

  195. 195.

    See, above, Sect. 9.2.1.1.

  196. 196.

    MICT (2015) Initial Appearance of Stanišić and Simatović before the Mechanism. http://www.unmict.org/en/news/initial-appearance-stani%C5%A1i%C4%87-and-simatovi%C4%87-mechanism. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  197. 197.

    Ibid.

  198. 198.

    For further information, see International Criminal Court (ICC) (2015) Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Official Records—Official Records: Volume I. https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP14/OR/ICC-ASP-14-20-OR-vol-I-ENG.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2016; and ICC (2015) Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Official Records—Official Records: Volume II. https://asp.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP14/OR/ICC-ASP-14-20-ENG-OR-vol-II.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2016.

  199. 199.

    ICC (2015) The State of Palestine accedes to the Rome Statute. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1082_2. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  200. 200.

    ICC (2015) The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, opens a preliminary examination of the situation in Palestine. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1083. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  201. 201.

    ICC (2015) ICC Prosecutor extends preliminary examination of the situation in Ukraine following second article 12(3) declaration. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1156. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  202. 202.

    ICC (2015) The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, requests judges for authorisation to open an investigation into the situation in Georgia. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1159. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  203. 203.

    The Office of the Prosecutor (2015) Situation in Honduras—Article 5 Report. https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/SAS-HON-Article_5_Report-Oct2015-ENG.PDF. Accessed 30 May 2016, paras 141–143.

  204. 204.

    ICC (2015) Dominic Ongwen transferred to The Hague. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1084. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  205. 205.

    ICC (2015) Situation in Mali: Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi surrendered to the ICC on charges of war crimes regarding the destruction of historical and religious monuments in Timbuktu. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1154. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  206. 206.

    ICC (2015) ICC Pre-Trial Chamber II separates Dominic Ongwen case from Kony et al. case. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1088&ln=en. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  207. 207.

    ICC, above n 205.

  208. 208.

    See, for example, South Africa’s failure to arrest Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir which is discussed in: ICC, The Prosecutor v Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Decision following the Prosecutor’s request for an order further clarifying that the Republic of South Africa is under the obligation to immediately arrest and surrender Omar Al Bashir, 13 June 2015, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-242; and ICC, The Prosecutor v Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Decision on the request of the Republic of South Africa for an extension of the time limit for submitting their views for the purposes of proceedings under article 87(7) of the Rome Statute, 15 October 2015, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-249. See also: ICC (2015) Pre-Trial Chamber II informs the United Nations Security Council about Sudan’s non-cooperation in the arrest and surrender of Omar Al Bashir. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1094. Accessed 11 May 2016; ICC (2015) The President of the Assembly calls on States Parties to fulfil their obligations to execute the Arrest warrants against Mr. Al Bashir. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1117. Accessed 11 May 2016; and ICC (2015) ICC Pre-Trial Chamber II refers the UNSC Sudan’s non-cooperation and failure to arrest Mr Abdel Raheem Hussein. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1123. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  209. 209.

    ICC (2015) ICC terminates proceedings against Okot Odhiambo following forensic confirmation of his passing. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1147&ln=en. Accessed 30 May 2015.

  210. 210.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Bosco Ntaganda, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/06.

  211. 211.

    ICC (2015) Ntaganda trial opens at International Criminal Court. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1143&ln=en. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  212. 212.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu & Narcisse Arido, Case No. ICC-01/05-01/13.

  213. 213.

    ICC (2015) Bemba, Kilolo et al. trial opens at International Criminal Court. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1155&ln=en. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  214. 214.

    ICC (2015) Ntaganda trial opens at International Criminal Court. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1143&ln=en. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  215. 215.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Bosco Ntaganda, Decision on the recommendation to the Presidency on holding part of the trial in the State concerned, 15 June 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/06-645-Red, paras 3 and 27.

  216. 216.

    ICC, above n 213; ICC, The Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Case No. ICC-01/05-01/08.

  217. 217.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, Decision on the withdrawal of charges against Mr Kenyatta, 13 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-02/11-1005, para 10.

  218. 218.

    Ibid, para 8.

  219. 219.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Public redacted version of: Decision on Prosecution Request for Admission of Prior Recorded Testimony, 19 August 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-1938-Red-Corr.

  220. 220.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Public redacted version of: Decision on Defence Applications for Judgments of Acquittal, 5 April 2016, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-2027-Red (Ruto 2016), paras 8–9.

  221. 221.

    Ibid.

  222. 222.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Decision on Page and Time Limits for the ‘No Case to Answer’ Motion, 18 September 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-1970, p. 9; Ruto 2016, above n 220, para 10.

  223. 223.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé, Decision on Prosecution requests to join the cases of The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé and related matters, 11 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/11-01/11-1, para 68.

  224. 224.

    Ibid, paras 42 and 44.

  225. 225.

    Ibid, para 48.

  226. 226.

    Ibid, paras 52–67.

  227. 227.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé, Decision on Defence requests for leave to appeal the ‘Decision on Prosecution requests to join the cases of The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé and related matters’, 22 April 2015, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/15-42, paras 17–19.

  228. 228.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, Judgment on the Prosecutor’s appeal against the decision of Trial Chamber II entitled “Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute”, 27 February 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/12 A, p. 6.

  229. 229.

    Ibid, paras 4–5.

  230. 230.

    Ibid, paras 42, 127 and 227.

  231. 231.

    Ibid, paras 117–118 and 126.

  232. 232.

    Ibid, para 227.

  233. 233.

    Ibid, paras 228–229.

  234. 234.

    Ibid, paras 230 and 252.

  235. 235.

    Ibid, para 252.

  236. 236.

    Ibid, paras 256–257.

  237. 237.

    Ibid, para 257.

  238. 238.

    Ibid, paras 276, 283 and 294.

  239. 239.

    Ibid, paras 295–296.

  240. 240.

    ICC (2015) Lubanga case: ICC Appeals Chamber amends the Trial Chamber’s order for reparations for victims. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1092. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  241. 241.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Judgement on the appeals against the “Decision establishing the principles and procedures to be applied to reparations” of 7 August 2012 with AMENDED order for reparations (Annex A) and public annexes 1 and 2, 3 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06-3129, p. 7.

  242. 242.

    ICC (2015) Lubanga case: ICC Appeals Chamber amends the Trial Chamber’s order for reparations for victims. https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/item.aspx?name=pr1092. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  243. 243.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Simone Gbagbo, Judgment on the appeal of Côte d’Ivoire against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 December 2014 entitled “Decision on Côte d’Ivoire’s challenge to the admissibility of the case against Simone Gbagbo”, 27 May 2015, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/12-75-Red.

  244. 244.

    Ibid, paras 7 and 14.

  245. 245.

    Ibid, para 7.

  246. 246.

    Ibid, paras 47–48 and 81.

  247. 247.

    Ibid, paras 58–59.

  248. 248.

    Ibid, paras 92, 98 and 140.

  249. 249.

    Ibid, para 128.

  250. 250.

    Ibid, para 130.

  251. 251.

    Ibid, para 141.

  252. 252.

    ICC, Situation on Registered Vessels of the Union of the Comoros, the Hellenic Republic and the Kingdom of Cambodia, Decision on the admissibility of the Prosecutor’s appeal against the “Decision on the request of the Union of the Comoros to review the Prosecutor’s decision not to initiate an investigation”, 6 November 2015, Case No. ICC-01/13-51, paras 1–3.

  253. 253.

    Ibid, para 16.

  254. 254.

    Ibid, para 7.

  255. 255.

    Ibid, paras 66–67.

  256. 256.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Decision on the review concerning reduction of sentence of Mr Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, 22 September 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06-3173.

  257. 257.

    Ibid, paras 1–2.

  258. 258.

    Ibid, paras 77–78.

  259. 259.

    Ibid, para 79.

  260. 260.

    ICC, The Prosecutor v Germain Katanga, Decision on the review concerning reduction of sentence of Mr Germain Katanga, 13 November 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07-3615, paras 1–2.

  261. 261.

    Ibid, para 111.

  262. 262.

    Ibid, para 116.

  263. 263.

    EULEX Kosovo (2015) Drenica 1 Verdict. http://www.eulex-kosovo.eu/?page=2,10,228. Accessed 9 May 2016.

  264. 264.

    Ibid.

  265. 265.

    Ibid.

  266. 266.

    Ibid.

  267. 267.

    EULEX Kosovo (2015) Drenica 2 Verdict. http://www.eulex-kosovo.eu/?page=2,10,229. Accessed 9 May 2016.

  268. 268.

    Ibid.

  269. 269.

    Ibid.

  270. 270.

    Ibid.

  271. 271.

    Ibid.

  272. 272.

    Sander A (2015) Kosovo agrees to war crimes tribunal. http://www.politico.eu/article/kosovo-agrees-to-war-crimes-tribunal-serbia/. Accessed 10 May 2016; International Justice Resource Centre (2015) Kosovo to Create Special War Crimes Court but Faces Challenges. http://www.ijrcenter.org/2015/08/25/kosovo-to-create-special-war-crimes-court-but-faces-challenges/. Accessed 10 May 2016.

  273. 273.

    International Justice Resource Centre (2015) Kosovo to Create Special War Crimes Court but Faces Challenges. http://www.ijrcenter.org/2015/08/25/kosovo-to-create-special-war-crimes-court-but-faces-challenges/. Accessed 10 May 2016.

  274. 274.

    Ibid.

  275. 275.

    Bytyci F (2015) Under Western pressure, Kosovo to put war crimes court to new vote. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-kosovo-warcrimes-idUSKCN0Q515P20150731?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews&rpc=69. Accessed 10 May 2016.

  276. 276.

    Sander A (2015) Kosovo agrees to war crimes tribunal. http://www.politico.eu/article/kosovo-agrees-to-war-crimes-tribunal-serbia/. Accessed 10 May 2016.

  277. 277.

    International Justice Resource Centre, above n 273.

  278. 278.

    Sander, above n 276.

  279. 279.

    Ibid.

  280. 280.

    The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) (2015) The Court Report—January. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-january-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016 (January Report), p. 1; ECCC (2005–2015) Case 002/02. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/case/topic/1299. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  281. 281.

    ECCC (2006–2015) Case 002. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/case/topic/2. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  282. 282.

    January Report, above n 280, pp. 1–2.

  283. 283.

    See, for example, ECCC (2015) The Court Report—March. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-march-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016, p. 3; ECCC (2015) The Court Report—April. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-april-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016, p. 3; ECCC (2015) The Court Report—July. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-july-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016 (July Report), p. 9; ECCC (2015) The Court Report—August. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-august-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016, p. 9; ECCC (2015) The Court Report—September. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-september-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016, p. 1; and ECCC (2015) The Court Report—December. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-december-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016 (December Report), pp. 1–2.

  284. 284.

    ECCC (2015) Press Release: First genocide charges to be heard at the ECCC. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/sites/default/files/media/ECCC%20PR%204%20Sep%202015%20Eng.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  285. 285.

    July Report, above n 283, pp. 1–2.

  286. 286.

    Ibid, p. 1.

  287. 287.

    ECCC (2015) The Court Report—November. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/publication/court-report-november-2015. Accessed 13 May 2016, pp. 1–2.

  288. 288.

    December Report, above n 283, p. 3.

  289. 289.

    ECCC (2015) The International Co-Investigating Judge Charges Im Chaem in absentia in Case 004. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/articles/international-co-investigating-judge-charges-im-chaem-absentia-case-004. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  290. 290.

    ECCC (2015) The International Co-Investigating Judge Charges Ao An in Case 004. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/articles/international-co-investigating-judge-charges-ao-case-004. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  291. 291.

    ECCC (2015) Mr Yim Tith charged in Case 004. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/articles/mr-yim-tith-charged-case-004. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  292. 292.

    ECCC (2015) The International Co-Investigating Judge Charges Meas Muth in absentia in Case 003. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/articles/international-co-investigating-judge-charges-meas-muth-absentia-case-003. Accessed 13 May 2016; and ECCC (2015) Mr Meas Muth charged in Case 003. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en/articles/mr-meas-muth-charged-case-003. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  293. 293.

    ECCC (2015) Conclusion of Judicial Investigation Against Im Chaem in Case 004/20-11-2008/ECCC/OCIJ. http://www.eccc.gov.kh/sites/default/files/media/ECCC%20OCIJ%2018%20Dec%202015%20En.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2016.

  294. 294.

    STL, The Prosecutor v Salim Jamil Ayyash, Mustafa Amine Badreddine, Hassan Habib Mehri, Hussein Hassan Oneissi & Assad Hassan Sabra, Case No. STL-11-01 (Ayyash).

  295. 295.

    STL, In the Case against Al Jadeed [CO.] S.A.L./NEW T.V. S.A.L (N.T.V.) and Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat, Case No. STL-14-05; and In the Case against Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. and Ibrahim Mohamed Al Amin, Case No. STL-14-06.

  296. 296.

    Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) (2015) Election of Judge Ivana Hrdličková as new STL President. http://www.stl-tsl.org/en/news-and-press/press-releases/3814-election-of-judge-ivana-hrdlickova-as-new-stl-president. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  297. 297.

    STL (2015) STL Judges amend the Rules of the Tribunal. http://www.stl-tsl.org/en/news-and-press/press-releases/3818-23-02-2015-stl-judges-amend-the-rules-of-the-tribunal. Accessed 11 May 2016.

  298. 298.

    STL (2015–2016) Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Seventh Annual Report (2015–2016), p. 6.

  299. 299.

    Ibid.

  300. 300.

    Ibid.

  301. 301.

    Ibid, pp. 6–7.

  302. 302.

    STL, In the Case against Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. and Ibrahim Mohamed Al Amin, Decision on Interlocutory Appeal Concerning Personal Jurisdiction in Contempt Proceedings, 23 January 2015, Case No. STL-14-06/PT/AP/AR126.1.

  303. 303.

    Ibid, paras 7–9.

  304. 304.

    Ibid, para 73.

  305. 305.

    Ibid, paras 72–75.

  306. 306.

    Ibid, para 75.

  307. 307.

    STL (2015) New date for the start of trial in the contempt case against Akhbar and Mr Ibrahim Al Amin (STL-14-06). http://www.stl-tsl.org/en/news-and-press/press-releases/4671-21-12-2015-new-date-for-the-start-of-trial-in-the-contempt-case-against-akhbar-and-mr-ibrahim-al-amin-stl-14-06. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  308. 308.

    STL, In the Case against Al Jadeed [CO.] S.A.L./NEW T.V. S.A.L (N.T.V.) and Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat, Public Redacted Version of Judgment, 18 September 2015, Case No. STL-14-05/T/CJ.

  309. 309.

    Ibid, para 1.

  310. 310.

    Ibid, paras 5 and 51.

  311. 311.

    Ibid, paras 1 and 55.

  312. 312.

    Ibid, paras 4 and 176.

  313. 313.

    Ibid, paras 179 and 190.

  314. 314.

    STL (2015) Sentencing judgment in the case against Ms Karma Al Khayat. http://www.stl-tsl.org/en/news-and-press/press-releases/4396-28-09-2015-sentencing-judgment-in-the-case-against-ms-karma-al-khayat. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  315. 315.

    STL (2015) Amicus Curiae Prosecutor Press Release. http://www.stl-tsl.org/en/news-and-press/press-releases/4398-29-09-2015-amicus-curiae-prosecutor-press-release. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  316. 316.

    International Crimes Tribunal-1, Bangladesh (2015) About ICT-BD. http://www.ict-bd.org/ict1/indexdetails.php. Accessed 23 May 2016; The Daily Star (2015) One war crimes tribunal to be inactive from Sunday. http://www.thedailystar.net/country/icts-merge-sunday-137200. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  317. 317.

    Paulussen et al. 2015, p. 194.

  318. 318.

    Amnesty International (2015) Bangladesh: Two opposition leaders face imminent execution. https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/bangladesh-two-opposition-leaders-face-imminent-execution. Accessed 16 June 2016.

  319. 319.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Moulana Abdus Sobhan, Judgment, 18 February 2015, Case No. 01 of 2014 (Sobhan), para 570.

  320. 320.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Mahidur Rahman and Md. Afsar Hossain Chutu, Judgment, 20 May 2015, Case No. 02 of 2014, p. 132.

  321. 321.

    Ibid.

  322. 322.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Syed Md. Hachhan alias Syed Md. Hasan alias Hachhen Ali, Judgment, 9 June 2015, Case No. 02 of 2014 (Hachhan), para 246.

  323. 323.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Forkan Mallik Forkan, Judgment, 16 July 2015, Case No. 03 of 2014 (Mallik), para 277.

  324. 324.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Sheikh Sirajul Haque alias Siraj Master, Khan Akram Hossain and Abdul Latif Talukder [now dead], Judgment, 11 August 2015, Case No. 03 of 2014 (Haque and Hossain), pp. 124–125.

  325. 325.

    BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Abdul Jabbar Engineer, Judgment, 24 February 2015, Case No. 01 of 2014, paras 292–296.

  326. 326.

    Haque and Hossain, above n 325, pp. 124–125.

  327. 327.

    Sarkar A (2015) Bangladesh’s apex court upholds capital punishment for Jamaat leader. http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/sc-upholds-verdict-98266. Accessed 23 May 2016; Felder B (2015) Bangladesh appeals court upholds death sentence for convicted war criminal. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/04/bangladesh-appeals-court-upholds-death-sentence-for-convicted-war-criminal.php. Accessed 23 May 2016; AFP (2015) Bangladesh upholds opposition politician’s death sentence. http://tribune.com.pk/story/928471/bangladesh-upholds-opposition-politicians-death-sentence/. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  328. 328.

    Sobhan, above n 320, p. 164; Hachhan, above n 323, pp. 123–124; Haque and Hossain, above n 325, p. 131; Mallik, above n 324, p. 98.

  329. 329.

    Perez, E (2015) Bangladesh executed Islamist leader for war crimes. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/04/bangladesh-executes-islamist-leader-for-war-crimes.php. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  330. 330.

    Asia Times (2015) Bangladesh executes two opposition leaders for 1971 war crimes. http://atimes.com/2015/11/decks-cleared-for-execution-of-2-war-criminals-in-bangladesh/. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  331. 331.

    For further information, see the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2015) News. http://www.sudbih.gov.ba/kategorija/vijesti-1/1. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  332. 332.

    Howell V (2015) Bosnia court indicts Serb politician for genocide. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/01/bosnia-court-indicts-serb-politician-for-genocide.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  333. 333.

    Ibid.

  334. 334.

    Zuvela M (2015) Bosnian court grants first ever compensation to wartime rape victim. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-bosnia-warcrimes-rape-idUSKBN0P427I20150624. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  335. 335.

    Ibid.

  336. 336.

    AFP (2015) Srebrenica Muslim commander charged with war crimes. https://www.yahoo.com/news/srebenica-muslim-commander-charged-war-crimes-233132762.html?ref=gs. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  337. 337.

    ICTY, Prosecutor v Naser Orić, Judgement, 3 July 2008, Case No. IT-03-68-A, p. 64.

  338. 338.

    Helbling W (2015) Former Bosnian general pleads not guilty of war crimes. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/10/former-bosnia-general-pleads-not-guilty-for-war-crimes.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  339. 339.

    Snyder P (2015) Central African Republic government establishes special criminal court. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/04/central-african-republic-government-establishes-special-criminal-court.php. Accessed 23 May 2016.

  340. 340.

    Ibid.

  341. 341.

    Ibid.

  342. 342.

    Human Rights Watch (2015) Why a Special Criminal Court for the Central African Republic Deserves Your Support. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/02/20/why-special-criminal-court-central-african-republic-deserves-your-support. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  343. 343.

    Gillan T (2015) Croatia approves law to compensate war rape victims. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/05/croatia-approves-law-to-compensate-war-rape-victims.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  344. 344.

    Radosavljevic Z (2015) Croatia passes law to compensate war rape victims. http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-croatia-rape-idUKKBN0OE1M820150529. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  345. 345.

    Gillan, above n 344.

  346. 346.

    Millar L (2015) German court convicts Rwandan rebel leaders over mass murder, rape in landmark trial. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-09-29/german-court-convicts-rwandan-rebel-leaders-in-landmark-trial/6811798. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  347. 347.

    AFP (2015) Rwandan rebel leaders jailed in Germany for war crimes. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/sep/28/rwandan-rebel-leaders-jailed-in-germany-for-war-crimes. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  348. 348.

    Ibid.

  349. 349.

    TeleSUR (2015) Guatemalan Genocide Retrial Begins, Then Suspended. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Guatemalan-Genocide-Retrial-Begins-Then-Suspended-20150105-0010.html. Accessed 24 May 2016; MacLean E & Beaudoin S (2015) Eighteen Months After Initial Conviction, Historic Guatemalan Genocide Trial Reopens but is Ultimately Suspended. http://www.ijmonitor.org/2015/01/eighteen-months-after-initial-conviction-historic-guatemalan-genocide-trial-reopens-but-is-ultimately-suspended/. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  350. 350.

    MacLean E and Beaudoin S (2015) Eighteen Months After Initial Conviction, Historic Guatemalan Genocide Trial Reopens but is Ultimately Suspended. http://www.ijmonitor.org/2015/01/eighteen-months-after-initial-conviction-historic-guatemalan-genocide-trial-reopens-but-is-ultimately-suspended/. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  351. 351.

    See for example: Reuters (2015) Ex-dictator found mentally unfit for new Guatemala genocide trial. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-3152883/Ex-dictator-mentally-unfit-new-Guatemala-genocide-trial.html. Accessed 24 May 2016; Beaudoin S (2015) Guatemalan Genocide Trial Scheduled to Reopen this Week Amid Growing Corruption Crisis. http://www.ijmonitor.org/2015/07/guatemalan-genocide-trial-scheduled-to-reopen-this-week-amid-growing-corruption-crisis/. Accessed 24 May 2016; Brailey T (2015) Guatemala court orders Rios Montt competency evaluation. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/08/guatemala-court-orders-rios-montt-competency-evaluation.php. Accessed 24 May 2016; and TeleSUR (2015) Guatemala: Court Suspends Dictator Rios Montt’s Genocide Trial. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Guatemala-Court-Suspends-Dictator-Rios-Montts-Genocide-Trial--20150818-0041.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  352. 352.

    TeleSUR (2015) Guatemala: Court Suspends Dictator Rios Montt’s Genocide Trial. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Guatemala-Court-Suspends-Dictator-Rios-Montts-Genocide-Trial--20150818-0041.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  353. 353.

    Malkin E (2015) Genocide Retrial Is Set for Guatemalan Former Dictator. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/26/world/americas/genocide-retrial-is-set-for-guatemalan-former-dictator.html?_r=2. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  354. 354.

    Felder B (2015) Guatemala court: Former dictator can be tried, not sentenced. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/08/guatemala-court-former-dictator-can-be-tried-not-sentenced.php. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  355. 355.

    TeleSUR (2015) Guatemalan Court Sentences Ex-Police Chief for Murdering 37. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Guatemalan-Court-Sentences-Ex-Police-Chief-for-Murdering-37-20150119-0043.html. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  356. 356.

    Ibid.

  357. 357.

    BBC (2015) Guatemala ex-police chief sentenced over embassy attack. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-30895524. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  358. 358.

    TeleSUR (2015) World Responds to 90-Year Sentence of Guatemalan Police Chief. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/World-Responds-to-90-Year-Sentence-of-Guatemalan-Police-Chief---20150120-0019.html. Accessed 24 May 2016; BBC (2015) Guatemala ex-police chief sentenced over embassy attack. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-30895524. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  359. 359.

    Farone A (2015) Nepal forms commissions to probe war crimes. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/02/nepal-forms-commissions-to-probe-war-crimes.php. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  360. 360.

    Ibid.

  361. 361.

    Sharma G (2015) Nepal sets up panel to probe war crimes amid cries for justice. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-nepal-human-rights-idUSKBN0LE18Y20150210. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  362. 362.

    Adkin R (2015) Nepal Supreme Court rejects amnesty for war crimes. http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-nepal-rights-idUKKBN0LV0CE20150227. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  363. 363.

    AFP (2014) Rwandan loses genocide appeal in Norway. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-2876476/Rwandan-loses-genocide-appeal-Norway.html. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  364. 364.

    AFP (2015) Norwegian court upholds Rwandan genocide sentence. https://www.yahoo.com/news/norwegian-court-upholds-rwandan-genocide-sentence-111322260.html?ref=gs. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  365. 365.

    TRIAL (2016) Sadi Bugingo. http://www.trial-ch.org/en/resources/trial-watch/trial-watch/profiles/profile/1059/action/show/controller/Profile/tab/legal-procedure.html. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  366. 366.

    Brody R (2015) Hissène Habré’s Day of Reckoning. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 24 May 2016; Brody R (2015) Hissène Habré Set to Begin. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  367. 367.

    BBC (2015) Chad ex-leader Hissene Habre to be tried in Senegal. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-31465670. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  368. 368.

    Cruvellier T (2015) For Hissène Habré, a Trial by Refusal. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/28/opinion/for-hissene-habre-a-trial-by-refusal.html. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  369. 369.

    Brody R (2015) An Unexpected Delay for Habré Victims. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 24 May 2016.

  370. 370.

    Body R (2015) The Victims Testify. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 25 May 2016; Brody R (2015) Sexual Slavery and Insults. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 25 May 2016; Brody R (2015) Souleymane Guengueng Fulfills his Oath. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 25 May 2016; and Brody R (2015) A Senegalese Merchant Testifies. https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/trial-hissene-habre. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  371. 371.

    Trust Africa (2016) Hissène Habré Trial before the Extraordinary African Chambers: December Hearings. http://www.ijmonitor.org/2016/02/hissene-habre-trial-before-the-extraordinary-african-chambers-december-hearings/. Accessed 25 May 2016; Sall F (2016) Hissène Habré Trial—Criminal phase to End in February. http://www.trustafrica.org/en/resource/news/item/3244-hissane-habre-trial-criminal-phase-set-to-end-in-february. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  372. 372.

    Vasovic A (2015) Serbia makes first arrests of suspected Srebrenica gunmen. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-serbia-warcrimes-idUSKBN0ME0R120150318. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  373. 373.

    Ibid.

  374. 374.

    Farone A (2015) Serbia prosecutors bring charges against Srebrenica massacre suspects. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/09/serbia-prosecutors-bring-charges-against-srebrenica-massacre-suspects.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  375. 375.

    Jones M (2015) OSCE: Serbia war crimes prosecution inadequate, incomplete. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/10/report-details-serbia-war-crimes-prosecutions-inadequate.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  376. 376.

    Ibid.

  377. 377.

    Nikolic I (2015) Serbia to Adopt National War Crimes Strategy. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbia-awaits-war-srimes-strategy-11-26-2015. Accessed 26 May 2016; Ristic M (2015) Serbia Unveils First-Ever War Crimes Strategy. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbia-publishes-war-crimes-strategy-12-13-2015. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  378. 378.

    Ristic M (2015) Serbia Unveils First-Ever War Crimes Strategy. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbia-publishes-war-crimes-strategy-12-13-2015. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  379. 379.

    Gall C (2015) Spanish Judge Accuses Moroccan Former Officials of Genocide in Western Sahara. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/11/world/europe/spanish-judge-accuses-moroccan-former-officials-of-genocide-in-western-sahara.html?_r=0. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  380. 380.

    Ibid.

  381. 381.

    Ibid.

  382. 382.

    BBC (2015) Spain dismisses Rwanda war crimes case against 40 officials. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-34477883. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  383. 383.

    Farone A (2015) Spain top court dismisses Rwanda war crimes case. http://www.jurist.org/paperchase/2015/10/spain-high-court-dismisses-rwanda-war-crimes-case.php. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  384. 384.

    BBC, above n 383.

  385. 385.

    Ibid.

  386. 386.

    Reuters (2015) Sri Lanka to start up special court on alleged war crimes. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-sri-lanka-rights-idUSKBN0TK5E120151201#oMoXuYRtwrCrFbXz.97. Accessed 26 May 2016.

  387. 387.

    Ibid.

  388. 388.

    International Centre for Transitional Justice (2015) Uruguay to probe dictatorship crimes. https://www.ictj.org/news/uruguay-probe-dictatorship-crimes. Accessed 25 May 2016.

  389. 389.

    Lessa F (2015) Justice at a crossroads in Uruguay. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/03/justice-crossroads-uruguay-150304101945537.html. Accessed 16 June 2016.

  390. 390.

    Arms Trade Treaty, opened for signature 2 April 2013, No. 52373 (entered into force 24 December 2014).

  391. 391.

    UN Treaty Collection (2016) Status of the Arms Trade Treaty. https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVI-8&chapter=26&lang=en. Accessed 10 June 2016.

  392. 392.

    UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (2015) First Conference of States Parties to the Arms Trade Treaty. https://www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/att/csp1/. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  393. 393.

    Bauer S and Mark Bromley M (2015) ‘Rules of the Road’ for the Arms Trade Treaty agreed in Cancun but stiffer tests lie ahead. http://www.sipri.org/media/expert-comments/bromley-aug-2015. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  394. 394.

    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2015) Yearbook. http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2015. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  395. 395.

    UN Office at Geneva (2015) Meeting of Experts on LAWS. http://www.unog.ch/80256EE600585943/(httpPages)/6CE049BE22EC75A2C1257C8D00513E26?OpenDocument. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  396. 396.

    The Monitor (2015) Cluster Munition Monitor 2015. http://the-monitor.org/media/2135498/2015_ClusterMunitionMonitor.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  397. 397.

    Ibid., p. 1.

  398. 398.

    The Monitor (2015) Landmine Monitor 2015. http://www.the-monitor.org/media/2152583/Landmine-Monitor-2015_finalpdf.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  399. 399.

    Ibid, p. 13.

  400. 400.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (2015) Weapons: ICRC statement to the United Nations. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/weapons-icrc-statement-united-nations-2015. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  401. 401.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Objective information on military matters, including transparency of military expenditures, UN Doc. A/RES/70/21, para 1.

  402. 402.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms and light weapons and collecting them, UN Doc. A/RES/70/29, para 2.

  403. 403.

    Ibid, para 4.

  404. 404.

    Ibid, para 5.

  405. 405.

    UN General Assembly (2005) International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons, UN Doc. A/CONF.192/15. http://www.un.org/events/smallarms2006/pdf/international_instrument.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2016.

  406. 406.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: The illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects, UN Doc. A/RES/70/49, para 17.

  407. 407.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus, UN Doc. A/RES/70/35, paras 1 and 2.

  408. 408.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Countering the threat posed by improvised explosive devices, UN Doc. A/RES/70/46, para 1.

  409. 409.

    Ibid, para 10.

  410. 410.

    Ibid, para 11.

  411. 411.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, UN Doc. A/RES/70/54, paras 1 and 4.

  412. 412.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, UN Doc. A/RES/70/55, paras 1 and 5.

  413. 413.

    Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature 3 September 1992, 1974 UNTS 45 (entered into force 29 April 1997).

  414. 414.

    See for example, UN Security Council (2015) Letter dated 25 March 2015 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2015/211. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_211.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016; and UN Security Council (2015) Letter dated 28 July from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2015/572, http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_572.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  415. 415.

    OPCW Executive Council (2015) Decision: Reports of the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission in Syria. https://www.opcw.org/fileadmin/OPCW/EC/M-48/ecm48dec01_e_.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  416. 416.

    UN Press (2015) Joint Investigative Mechanism Panel Visits Syria. http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/dc3597.doc.htm. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  417. 417.

    UN Press (2015) Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution 2235 (2015), Establishing Mechanism to Identify Perpetrators Using Chemical Weapons in Syria. http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc12001.doc.htm. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  418. 418.

    UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2235 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2235 (Resolution 2235), para 1.

  419. 419.

    Ibid., para 8.

  420. 420.

    OPCW Executive Council (2015) Decision: Further Reports of the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission in Syria. https://www.opcw.org/fileadmin/OPCW/EC/M-50/en/ecm50dec01_e_.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  421. 421.

    UN Press, above n 417.

  422. 422.

    Resolution 2235, above n 419, paras 5 and 6.

  423. 423.

    OPCW (2015) Note by the Technical Secretariat, Report of the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission in Syria regarding the incidents described in communications from the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs and Expatriates and Head of the National Authority of the Syrian Arab Republic, UN Doc. S/1318/2015/Rev.1. http://www.the-trench.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/OPCW-FFM-20151217-Syria-request-Rev1.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  424. 424.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, UN Doc. Resolution A/RES/70/41, para 10.

  425. 425.

    BBC (2015) ‘Chemical agent’ traced in IS mortar fire, says US general. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34020268. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  426. 426.

    Vice News (2015) US Says Evidence Suggests the Islamic State Used Mustard Gas on Kurds in Iraq, 24 August 2015. https://news.vice.com/article/us-says-evidence-suggests-the-islamic-state-used-mustard-gas-on-kurds-in-iraq.

  427. 427.

    OPCW (2015) Report of the Seventy-Eighth Session of the Executive Council, Doc. EC-78/2. https://www.opcw.org/fileadmin/OPCW/EC/78/en/ec7802_e_.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2016 (Seventy-Eighth Session); Report of the Seventy-Ninth Session of the Executive Council, Doc. EC-79/6. https://www.opcw.org/fileadmin/OPCW/EC/79/en/ec7906_e_.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2016 (Seventy-Ninth Session); and Report of the Eightieth Session of the Executive Council, Doc. EC-80/4. https://www.opcw.org/fileadmin/OPCW/EC/80/en/ec8004_e_.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016 (Eightieth Session).

  428. 428.

    Seventy-Eighth Session, above n 428, para 6.5; Seventy-Ninth Session, above n 428, para 6.4; and Eightieth Session, above n 428, para 7.5.

  429. 429.

    Lentzos F (2014) Workshop Report, Confidence & Compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention, Department of Social Science, Health & Medicine, King’s College London & Geneva Centre for Security Policy. http://www.filippalentzos.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/BWC-workshop-report-NEW-web.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  430. 430.

    Guthrie R (2015) MX report 6, BioWeapons Prevention Project & CBW-Events. http://www.cbw-events.org.uk/MX15-combined.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016; and Guthrie R (2015) MSP reports 1, 2 and 4, BioWeapons Prevention Project & CBW-Events, http://www.cbw-events.org.uk/MSP15-combined.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  431. 431.

    UN Office at Geneva (2015) Report of the Meeting of States Parties to the BTWC, BWC/MSP/2015/6. http://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/88768BCA419C9EF2C1257F8B004DBFB7/$file/BWC_MSP_2015_6_English.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016, para 56.

  432. 432.

    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, opened for signature 1 July 1968, 7 UNTS 161 (entered into force 5 March 1970).

  433. 433.

    UN (2015) Review Conference of States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT): Working Papers. http://www.un.org/en/conf/npt/2015/working-papers.shtml. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  434. 434.

    Mecklin J (2015) Disarm and Modernize. http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/03/24/disarm-and-modernize-nuclear-weapons-warheads/. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  435. 435.

    Treaty on the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and United States of America), opened for signature 8 December 1987, 1657 UNTS 2 (entered into force 1 June 1988).

  436. 436.

    US Department of State (2015) 2015 Report on Adherence to and Compliance With Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments. http://www.state.gov/t/avc/rls/rpt/2015/243224.htm#Adherence. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  437. 437.

    Ibid.

  438. 438.

    Ibid.

  439. 439.

    CTBTO Preparatory Commission Information Centre (2015) 70 Years After the Bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. https://www.ctbto.org/press-centre/highlights/2015/70-years-after-the-bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki/. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  440. 440.

    Reuters (2015) U.S. confirms Iran tested nuclear-capable ballistic missile. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-missiles-usa-idUSKCN0SA20Z20151016. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  441. 441.

    The New York Times (2015) Kim Jong-Un’s Claim of North Korea Hydrogen Bomb Draws Skepticism. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/11/world/asia/north-korea-kim-hydrogen-bomb.html?_r=0. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  442. 442.

    Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, 8–9 December 2014.

  443. 443.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations, UN Doc. A/RES/70/33, paras 2 and 5.

  444. 444.

    Ibid, para 7.

  445. 445.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Follow-up to the 2013 high-level meeting of the General Assembly on nuclear disarmament, UN Doc. A/RES/70/34, para 4.

  446. 446.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, UN Doc. A/RES/70/24, para 3.

  447. 447.

    Ibid, para 5.

  448. 448.

    Ibid, para 9.

  449. 449.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: United action with renewed determination towards the total elimination of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/40, para 2.

  450. 450.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Nuclear disarmament, UN Doc. A/RES/70/52, paras 6 and 7.

  451. 451.

    Ibid, paras 9, 15 and 18.

  452. 452.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/47, paras 5 and 6.

  453. 453.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Humanitarian pledge for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/48, para 3.

  454. 454.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction, UN Doc. A/RES/70/36, para 3.

  455. 455.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: No first placement of weapons in outer space, UN Doc. A/RES/70/27 (Resolution 70/27), paras 1 and 2.

  456. 456.

    UNIDIR (2015) Space Security Conference. http://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/space-security-2015-en-640.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.

  457. 457.

    Resolution 70/27, above n 456, para 1.

  458. 458.

    Ibid, para 3.

  459. 459.

    UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities, UN Doc. A/RES/70/53, para 7.

  460. 460.

    See Paulussen et al. 2015, p. 214.

  461. 461.

    ICRC (2015) No agreement by States on mechanism to strengthen compliance with rules of war. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/no-agreement-states-mechanism-strengthen-compliance-rules-war. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  462. 462.

    ICRC (2015) Strengthening Compliance with International Humanitarian Law: Concluding Report. https://www.icrc.org/en/download/file/10645/concluding-report-strengthening-compliance-ihl-icrc-06-2015-.pdf. Accessed 12 May 2016.

  463. 463.

    Ibid.

  464. 464.

    ICRC, above n 462.

  465. 465.

    The Intercept (2015) The Drone Papers. https://theintercept.com/drone-papers/. Accessed 6 June 2016.

  466. 466.

    Scahill J (2015) The Assassination Complex. https://theintercept.com/drone-papers/the-assassination-complex/. Accessed 6 June 2016.

  467. 467.

    Ibid.

  468. 468.

    US (2013) Policy Standards and Procedures for the Use of Force in Counterterrorism Operations Outside the United States and Areas of Active Hostilities. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/2013.05.23_fact_sheet_on_ppg.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2016.

  469. 469.

    Currier C (2015) The Kill Chain. https://theintercept.com/drone-papers/the-kill-chain/. Accessed 6 June 2016.

References

Books, Articles and Other Documents

  • Paulussen C, Dorsey J, Koulen S-J (2015) Year in Review 2013. In: Gill T et al (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, pp 147–216

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms and light weapons and collecting them, UN Doc. A/RES/70/29

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Countering the threat posed by improvised explosive devices, UN Doc. A/RES/70/46

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, UN Doc. A/RES/70/24

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Follow-up to the 2013 high-level meeting of the General Assembly on nuclear disarmament, UN Doc. A/RES/70/34

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/47

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Humanitarian pledge for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/48

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, UN Doc. A/RES/70/54

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, UN Doc. Resolution A/RES/70/41

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, UN Doc. A/RES/70/55

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction, UN Doc. A/RES/70/36

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: No first placement of weapons in outer space, UN Doc. A/RES/70/27

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Nuclear disarmament, UN Doc. A/RES/70/52

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Objective information on military matters, including transparency of military expenditures, UN Doc. A/RES/70/21

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus, UN Doc. A/RES/70/35

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations, UN Doc. A/RES/70/33

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: The illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects, UN Doc. A/RES/70/49

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities, UN Doc. A/RES/70/53

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 7 December 2015: United action with renewed determination towards the total elimination of nuclear weapons, UN Doc. A/RES/70/40

    Google Scholar 

  • UN Security Council (2015) Letter dated 16 November 2015 from the President of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2015/874

    Google Scholar 

  • UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2217 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2217

    Google Scholar 

  • UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2235 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2235

    Google Scholar 

  • UN Security Council (2015) Resolution 2254 (2015), UN Doc. S/RES/2254

    Google Scholar 

  • van Oijen F, Dorsey J (2016) Year in Review 2014. In: Gill T et al (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, pp 215–276

    Google Scholar 

Case Law

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Abdul Jabbar Engineer, Judgment, 24 February 2015, Case No. 01 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Forkan Mallik Forkan, Judgment, 16 July 2015, Case No. 03 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Md. Mahidur Rahman and Md. Afsar Hossain Chutu, Judgment, 20 May 2015, Case No. 02 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Moulana Abdus Sobhan, Judgment, 18 February 2015, Case No. 01 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Sheikh Sirajul Haque alias Siraj Master, Khan Akram Hossain and Abdul Latif Talukder [now dead], Judgment, 11 August 2015, Case No. 03 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • BICT, The Chief Prosecutor v Syed Md. Hachhan alias Syed Md. Hasan alias Hachhen Ali, Judgment, 9 June 2015, Case No. 02 of 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, Situation on Registered Vessels of the Union of the Comoros, the Hellenic Republic and the Kingdom of Cambodia, Decision on the admissibility of the Prosecutor’s appeal against the “Decision on the request of the Union of the Comoros to review the Prosecutor’s decision not to initiate an investigation”, 6 November 2015, Case No. ICC-01/13-51

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Bosco Ntaganda, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/06

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Bosco Ntaganda, Decision on the recommendation to the Presidency on holding part of the trial in the State concerned, 15 June 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/06-645-Red

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Germain Katanga, Decision on the review concerning reduction of sentence of Mr Germain Katanga, 13 November 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07-3615

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu & Narcisse Arido, Case No. ICC-01/05-01/13

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Case No. ICC-01/05-01/08

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé, Decision on Defence requests for leave to appeal the ‘Decision on Prosecution requests to join the cases of The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé and related matters’, 22 April 2015, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/15-42

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé, Decision on Prosecution requests to join the cases of The Prosecutor v Laurent Gbagbo and The Prosecutor v Charles Blé Goudé and related matters, 11 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/11-01/11-1

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, Judgment on the Prosecutor’s appeal against the decision of Trial Chamber II entitled “Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute”, 27 February 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-02/12 A

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Decision following the Prosecutor’s request for an order further clarifying that the Republic of South Africa is under the obligation to immediately arrest and surrender Omar Al Bashir, 13 June 2015, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-242

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Decision on the request of the Republic of South Africa for an extension of the time limit for submitting their views for the purposes of proceedings under article 87(7) of the Rome Statute, 15 October 2015, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09-249

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Simone Gbagbo, Judgment on the appeal of Côte d’Ivoire against the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber I of 11 December 2014 entitled “Decision on Côte d’Ivoire’s challenge to the admissibility of the case against Simone Gbagbo”, 27 May 2015, Case No. ICC-02/11-01/12-75-Red

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Decision on the review concerning reduction of sentence of Mr Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, 22 September 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06-3173

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Judgement on the appeals against the “Decision establishing the principles and procedures to be applied to reparations” of 7 August 2012 with AMENDED order for reparations (Annex A) and public annexes 1 and 2, 3 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06-3129

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, Decision on the withdrawal of charges against Mr Kenyatta, 13 March 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-02/11-1005

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Decision on Page and Time Limits for the ‘No Case to Answer’ Motion, 18 September 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-1970

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Public redacted version of: Decision on Defence Applications for Judgments of Acquittal, 5 April 2016, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-2027-Red

    Google Scholar 

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto & Joshua Arap Sang, Public redacted version of: Decision on Prosecution Request for Admission of Prior Recorded Testimony, 19 August 2015, Case No. ICC-01/09-01/11-1938-Red-Corr

    Google Scholar 

  • ICTR, The Prosecutor v Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, Arsène Shalom Ntahobali, Sylvain Nsabimana, Alphonse Nteziryayo, Joseph Kanyabashi and Élie Ndayambaje, Judgement, 14 December 2015, Case No. ICTR-98-42-A

    Google Scholar 

  • ICTY, Prosecutor v Jovica Stanišić & Franko Simatović, Judgement, 9 December 2015, Case No. IT-03-69-A

    Google Scholar 

  • ICTY, Prosecutor v Naser Orić, Judgement, 3 July 2008, Case No. IT-03-68-A

    Google Scholar 

  • ICTY, Prosecutor v Vujadin Popović, Ljubiša Beara, Drago Nikolić, Radivoje Miletić & Vinko Pandurević, Judgement, 30 January 2015, Case No. IT-05-88-A

    Google Scholar 

  • ICTY, Prosecutor v Zdravko Tolimir, Judgement, 8 April 2015, Case No. IT-05-88/2-A

    Google Scholar 

  • MICT, Prosecutor v Jean Uwinkindi, Decision on Uwinkindi’s Request for Revocation, 22 October 2015, Case No. MICT-12-25-R14.1

    Google Scholar 

  • MICT, Prosecutor v Milan Lukić, Decision on Milan Lukić’s Application for Review, 7 July 2015, Case No. MICT-13-52-R.1

    Google Scholar 

  • MICT, Prosecutor v Milan Lukić, Decision on Prosecutor’s Motion to Strike Milan Lukić’s Notice of Appeal of Decision on Application for Review, 13 November 2015, Case No. MICT-13-52-R.1

    Google Scholar 

  • MICT, Prosecutor v Sreten Lukić, Decision on Sreten Lukić’s Application for Review, 8 July 2015, Case No. MICT-14-67-R.1

    Google Scholar 

  • STL, In the Case against Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. and Ibrahim Mohamed Al Amin, Case No. STL-14-06

    Google Scholar 

  • STL, In the Case against Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. and Ibrahim Mohamed Al Amin, Decision on Interlocutory Appeal Concerning Personal Jurisdiction in Contempt Proceedings, 23 January 2015, Case No. STL-14-06/PT/AP/AR126.1

    Google Scholar 

  • STL, In the Case against Al Jadeed [CO.] S.A.L./NEW T.V. S.A.L (N.T.V.) and Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat, Case No. STL-14-05

    Google Scholar 

  • STL, In the Case against Al Jadeed [CO.] S.A.L./NEW T.V. S.A.L (N.T.V.) and Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat, Public Redacted Version of Judgment, 18 September 2015, Case No. STL-14-05/T/CJ

    Google Scholar 

  • STL, The Prosecutor v Salim Jamil Ayyash, Mustafa Amine Badreddine, Hassan Habib Mehri, Hussein Hassan Oneissi & Assad Hassan Sabra, Case No. STL-11-01

    Google Scholar 

Treaties

  • Arms Trade Treaty, opened for signature 2 April 2013, No. 52373 (entered into force 24 December 2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature 3 September 1992, 1974 UNTS 45 (entered into force 29 April 1997)

    Google Scholar 

  • Treaty on the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and United States of America), opened for signature 8 December 1987, 1657 UNTS 2 (entered into force 1 June 1988)

    Google Scholar 

  • Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, opened for signature 1 July 1968, 7 UNTS 161 (entered into force 5 March 1970)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bérénice Boutin .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 T.M.C. Asser Press and the authors

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Boutin, B., Pitcher, K., Güven, O. (2016). Year in Review 2015. In: Gill, T. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law Volume 18, 2015. Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, vol 18. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-141-8_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-141-8_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-6265-140-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-6265-141-8

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)