Advertisement

Punishing and Monitoring the Greek Football Fans: Civil Liberties at Stake?

Chapter
  • 577 Downloads
Part of the ASSER International Sports Law Series book series (ASSER)

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to trace the development of Greece’s counter-hooliganism legislation. Specifically, it analyses the legal regulation and measures adopted over the past 35 years to punish, tackle, and control football supporters’ violent behaviour in and around stadia. Contrary to other countries and contexts, where the issue of the violation of human rights of supporters has captured scholars’ attention, in Greece this field of study remains largely unexplored. This study shows the way in which Greek football crowds progressively became the target of draconian legislation and how, during the 1980s and 1990s, legal responses aimed to punish violent behaviour in a limited spatial and temporal context; before, during, and after football matches, both in and around stadia. From the beginning of the twenty-first century, this reasoning changed radically to a point where football fans became the subject of increased punishments and surveillance measures. Following a proactive reasoning, and dominated by a risk rationality, legal network provisions expanded in time and space to the extent that they identified supporters’ clubs’ composition; controlled fan travel; and introduced electronic surveillance within stadia.

Keywords

Football Hooligan Greece Law Policing Human rights 

References

  1. Armstrong G, Hobbs D (1994) Tackled from behind. In: Guilianotti R, Bonney N, Hepworth M (eds) Football violence and social identity. London, Routledge, pp 196–228Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong G, Guilianotti R (1997) Legislators and interpreters: the law and ‘football hooligans’. In: Armstrong G, Guilianotti R (eds) Entering the field. Berg, pp 178–195Google Scholar
  3. Falacho L (2001) Les mesures prises pour lutter contre le hooliganisme à l’épreuve des libertés publiques. Revue du droit public 2:419–445Google Scholar
  4. Foucault M (2004) Sécurité, territoire, population. Cours au Collège de France (1977–78). Gallimard/Seuil, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. Gogos N (2006) Supporters’ trust in Europe? Some sociological reflections on the organized football supporters in England and Greece. Master II dissertation, University of Leicester, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  6. Koulouri C (2000) Sport et société bourgeoise. Les associations sportives en Grèce 1870–1992. L’Harmattan, ParisGoogle Scholar
  7. Mastrogiannakis D (2010) La lutte contre le hooliganisme en Grèce: ‘Jeux’ et ‘enjeux’ des politiques anti-hooligan. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Lille 2, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (2012) Punishing in situ governing by distance: risk management and practices in the Greek counter-hooligan policies. In Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (eds) Risk management and sport events. Le Manuscrit, Paris, pp 111–133Google Scholar
  9. Pearson G (2005) Qualifying for Europe? The legitimacy of football banning orders ‘on complaint’ under the principle of proportionality. Entertainment and Sports Law Journal 3:1–10Google Scholar
  10. Spaaij R (2012) The football laboratory: policing football supporters in the Netherlands. In: Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (eds) Risk management and sport events. Le Manuscrit, Paris, pp 49–91Google Scholar
  11. Spaaij R (2013) Risk, security and technology: governing football supporters in the twenty-first century. In: Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (eds) Special issue: Security and sport mega-events: a complex relation. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 16:91–110Google Scholar
  12. Testa A (2012) Bare sovereignty: the football banning order and the Italian fun. In: Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (eds) Risk management and sport events. Le Manuscrit, Paris, pp 91–110Google Scholar
  13. Testa A (2013) Normalisation of the exception: issues and controversies of the Italian counter-hooliganism legislation. In: Mastrogiannakis D, Dorville C (eds) Special issue: Security and sport mega-events: a complex relation. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 16:91–110Google Scholar
  14. Tsoukala A (1995) ‘I politiki ton Europaikon Organon enanti tou Xouligkanismou kai i epiptosi tis sto Elliniko Dikaio’ (Counter-Hooligan European’s Institutions responses to the Greek law). Iperaspisi 2:399–417Google Scholar
  15. Tsoukala A (1999) I astinomefsi ton athlitikonekdiloseon. I antimetopisi tou houliganismou stinAglia, tin Italia kai tin Ollandia. Sakkoulas, AthensGoogle Scholar
  16. Tsoukala A (2002) Le hooliganisme et la protection de la sécurité intérieure en Europe. Quels enjeux? Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Scientifique 3:310–321Google Scholar
  17. Tsoukala A (2003) Les nouvelles politiques de contrôle du hooliganisme en Europe: de la fusion sécuritaire au multipositionnement de la menace. Cultures et Conflits 51:83–93Google Scholar
  18. Tsoukala A (2008) Dispositif de sécurité contre le hooliganisme et droits des supporters en Europe. In: Busset T, Jaccoud C, Dubey JP, Malatesta D (eds). Le football à l’épreuve de la violence et de l’extremisme. Lausanne, Antipodes, pp 189–208Google Scholar
  19. Tsoukala A (2009) Football hooliganism in Europe: Security and civil liberties in the balance. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. Asser press and the authors 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mediterranean CollegeThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations