Is Taurine a Biomarker in Autistic Spectrum Disorder?
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Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which is not incorporated into protein. However, taurine has various critical physiological functions including development of the eye and brain, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immune functions including anti-inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant activity. The causes of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are not clear but a high heritability implicates an important role for genetic factors. Reports also implicate oxidative stress and inflammation in the etiology of ASD. Thus, taurine, a well-known antioxidant and regulator of inflammation, was investigated here using the sera from both girls and boys with ASD as well as their siblings and parents. Previous reports regarding taurine serum concentrations in ASD from various laboratories have been controversial. To address the potential role of taurine in ASD, we collected sera from 66 children with ASD (males: 45; females: 21, age 1.5–11.5 years, average age 5.2 ± 1.6) as well as their unaffected siblings (brothers: 24; sisters: 32, age 1.5–17 years, average age 7.0 ± 2.0) as controls of the children with ASD along with parents (fathers: 49; mothers: 54, age 28–45 years). The sera from normal adult controls (males: 47; females: 51, age 28–48 years) were used as controls for the parents. Taurine concentrations in all sera samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a phenylisothiocyanate labeling technique. Taurine concentrations from female and male children with ASD were 123.8 ± 15.2 and 145.8 ± 8.1 μM, respectively, and those from their unaffected brothers and sisters were 142.6 ± 10.4 and 150.8 ± 8.4 μM, respectively. There was no significant difference in taurine concentration between autistic children and their unaffected siblings. Taurine concentrations in children with ASD were also not significantly different from their parents (mothers: 139.6 ± 7.7 μM, fathers: 147.4 ± 7.5 μM). No significant difference was observed between adult controls and parents of ASD children (control females: 164.8 ± 4.8 μM, control males: 163.0 ± 7.0 μM). However, 21 out of 66 children with ASD had low taurine concentrations (<106 μM). Since taurine has anti-oxidant activity, children with ASD with low taurine concentrations will be examined for abnormal mitochondrial function. Our data imply that taurine may be a valid biomarker in a subgroup of ASD.
KeywordsTaurine ASD Mitochondrial dysfunction Antioxidant
Autistic spectrum disorder
High performance liquid chromatography
This work was supported by the Office for People with Developmental Disabilities, Albany, NY. We are thankful to Dr. William Levis for discussing the research and reviewing this manuscript.
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