Stress and strain, welfare and suffering
Up to this point, disturbances to the systems regulating an animal’s life have been discussed in terms of stimuli initiated by sensory receptors both inside and outside the body, or arising from internal body changes which affect the brain by routes other than via sensory receptors, or arising from brain function without other input. These are interpreted in relation to previous experience and, hence, result in causal factors which are inputs to the decision-making centres producing regulatory responses and contributing to homeostasis. This mechanistic analysis can now be extended to the topics of central concern in this text: stress, animal welfare and suffering.
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