Biological Invasions in Agricultural Ecosystems in China

  • Mingxing JiangEmail author
  • Yunshan Huang
  • Fanghao WanEmail author
Part of the Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology book series (INNA, volume 11)


Agriculture has served as a major contributor for the China’s rapid economic development over past decades. However, agroecosystems in this coutry have been intensively invaded by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular since the beginning of twentieth century, which cause huge losses to economy and ecological service values each year. Moreover, now China agroecosystems are at the stage of being introduced with new IAS at a greater rate due to rapid growth in international trade and human activities. And, a number of dangerous IAS already introduced are continuing to expand rapidly. For these reasons, biological invasions in China agroecosystems have attracted great attention since the beginning of this century, both from governments and research institutions. In this chapter, we first depict the status of IAS in China agroecosystems regarding their diversity, source, distribution, spread and damage, and the factors perceived to have contributed to the IAS introduction and spreading in this country. Then, we show the invasibility of China agroecosystems. The major findings of researches regarding invasiveness of IAS in China are reviewed. Next, invasiveness and the underlying invasion mechanisms of some serious IAS were reviewed. Lastly, the major approaches employed for control of IAS in China agroecosystems were presented, including risk analysis, detection, monitoring, regional prevention, biological control, replacement control, breeding and use of resistant crop cultivars, as well as integrated use of invasive plants. The trend of introducing new IAS into China agroecosystems and the corresponding tactics to be taken for dealing with IAS in the future were discussed.


Agricultural ecosystems Invasive alien species Biological invasions Invasion mechanisms Invasibility Invasion management 



We thank Xiaoqing Xian, Xiaowei Wang, Baoping Li, Yuanchao Wang, Baishi Hu, Li Gao and Haigen Xu for providing data essential for this chapter.


  1. Ansong M, Pickering C (2013) Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars. PLoS One 8:e80275PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cao KH, Birchenall JA (2013) Agricultural productivity, structural change, and economic growth in post-reform China. J Dev Econ 104:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen RX, Ye GY, Wang YJ, Gu BQ, Zhang CF, Ying XL, Shen J (2005) The biology and host range of water hyacinth weevil, Neochetina eichhorniae, an insect agent for the control of the weed. Acta Agric Zhejiangensis 17:74–78Google Scholar
  4. Chen BM, Peng SL, Ni GY (2009) Effects of the invasive plant Mikania micrantha HBK on soil nitrogen availability through allelopathy in South China. Biol Invasions 11:1291–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen SJ, Lu F, Cheng JA, Jiang MX, Way MO (2012) Identification and biological role of the endosymbionts Wolbachia in rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 41:469–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen GQ, He YH, Qiang S (2013) Increasing seriousness of plant invasions in croplands of eastern China in relation to changing farming practices: a case study. PLoS One 8:e74136PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen SG, Yang J, Zhang MS, Strasser RJ, Qiang S (2016) Classification and characteristics of heat tolerance in Ageratina adenophora populations using fast chlorophyll a fluorescence rise O-J-I-P. Environ Exp Bot 122:126–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dai ZC, Fu W, Wan LY, Cai HH, Wang N, Qi SS, Du DL (2016) Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants. Front Plant Sci 7:706PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng JQ, Rui GS, Guan YT, Yu YQ, Zhang DM (1997) The selection of an apple stock line, Siberian crabapple Jin 67, immune from woolly apple aphid. Acta Phys Sin 20:217–222Google Scholar
  11. Deng FT, Sun PS, Qing XY, Deng FS (2009) Pilot-scale study on purification of the polluted water in Dianchi Lake by planting Eichhornia crassipes and its reutilization. J Wuhan Univ Technol 12:84–86Google Scholar
  12. Deng Y, Zhao YY, Padilla-Zakourc O, Yang GY (2015) Polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and bark extracts of Solidago canadensis L. Ind Crop Prod 74:803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ding JQ, Chen ZQ, Fu WD, Wang R, Zhang GL, Lv XJ, Fang YJ, Xia WQ (2001) Control Eichhornia crassipes, an invasive aquatic weed in South China with Neochetina eichhorniae. Chin J Biol Control 17:97–100Google Scholar
  14. Ding H, Xu HG, Liu ZL (2007) Impacts of invasion of Eupatorium adenophorum on vegetation diversity. J Ecol Rural Environ 23(2):29–32, 75Google Scholar
  15. Ding JQ, Mack RN, Lu P, Ren MX, Huang HW (2008) China’s booming economy is sparking and accelerating biological invasions. Bioscience 58:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ding WJ, Zhang HY, Zhang FJ, Wang LJ, Cui SB (2014) Morphology of the invasive amphiphyte Alternanthera philoxeroides under different water levels and nitrogen concentrations. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 56:136–147Google Scholar
  17. Dong SK, Li JP, Li XY, Liu SL, Zhao QH (2011a) Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on composition and diversity of roadside vegetation: a case study from Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve of Southwest China. Afr J Biotechnol 10:16228–16235Google Scholar
  18. Dong SM, Yin WX, Kong GH, Yang XY, Qutob D, Chen QH, Kale SD, Sui YY, Zhang ZG, Dou DL et al. (2011b) Phytophthora sojae avirulence effector Avr3b is a secreted NADH and ADP-ribose pyrophosphorylase that modulates plant immunity. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002353PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Du LS, Yang BF, Guan WB, Li JM (2016) Phenotypic variation and water selection potential in the stem structure of invasive alligator weed. Acta Oecol 71:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eschtruth AK, Battles JJ (2009) Assessing the relative importance of disturbance, herbivory, diversity, and propagule pressure in exotic plant invasion. Ecol Monogr 79:265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fan SF, Liu CH, Yu D, Xie D (2013) Differences in leaf nitrogen content, photosynthesis, and resource-use efficiency between Eichhornia crassipes and a native plant Monochoria vaginalis in response to altered sediment nutrient levels. Hydrobiologia 711:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fan SF, Yu HH, Liu CH, Yu D, Han YQ, Wang LG (2015) The effects of complete submergence on the morphological and biomass allocation response of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. Hydrobiologia 746:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feng YL (2008a) Nitrogen allocation and partitioning in invasive and native Eupatorium species. Physiol Plant 132:350–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feng YL (2008b) Photosynthesis, nitrogen allocation and specific leaf area in invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and native Eupatorium japonicum grown at different irradiances. Physiol Plant 133:318–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feng YL, Wang JF, Sang WG (2007) Biomass allocation, morphology and photosynthesis of invasive and noninvasive exotic species grown at four irradiance levels. Acta Oecol 31:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feng YL, Lei YB, Wang RF, Callaway RM, Valiente-Banuet A, Inderjit LYP, Zheng YL (2009) Evolutionary tradeoffs for nitrogen allocation to photosynthesis versus cell walls in an invasive plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1853–1856PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feng YL, Li YP, Wang RF, Callaway RM, Valiente-Banuet A, Inderjit (2011) A quicker return energy-use strategy by populations of a subtropical invader in the non-native range: a potential mechanism for the evolution of increased competitive ability. J Ecol 99:1116–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fu MY, Fu SJ, Rui K, Chen MC (2015) Identification of banana germplasm resource resistant to Radopholus similis. J Anhui Agric Sci 43(20):166–167, 170Google Scholar
  29. Funk JL (2008) Differences in plasticity between invasive and native plants. J Ecol 96:1162–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gao LX, Geng YP, Li B, Chen JK, Yang J (2010) Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation. Plant Cell Environ 33:1820–1827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gao L, Zan QJ, Li MG, Guo Q, Hu L, Jiang L, Zhou S, Liu HJ (2013) Soil fungi of three native tree species inhibit biomass production and shift biomass allocation of invasive Mikania micrantha Kunth. Chin Sci Bull 58:758–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gao JM, Li JZ, Xiao Q, Luo CB, Zhang SQ, Chen HL, Yi KX (2014) Isolation and characterization of a cryptogein-like gene from drought and salt-treated Alternanthera philoxeroides roots. Biotechnol Lett 36:2351–2356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geng YP, Pan XY, Xu CY, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK (2006) Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in relation to different water availability, compared to its native congener. Acta Oecol 30:380–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geng YP, Pan XY, Xu CY, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK (2007a) Plasticity and ontogenetic drift of biomass allocation in response to above- and below-ground resource availabilities in perennial herbs: a case study of Alternanthera philoxeroides. Ecol Res 22:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geng YP, Pan XY, Xu CY, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK, Lu BR, Song ZP (2007b) Phenotypic plasticity rather than locally adapted ecotypes allows the invasive alligator weed to colonize a wide range of habitats. Biol Invasions 9:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Geng YP, van Klinken RD, Sosa A, Li B, Chen JK, Xu CY (2016) The relative importance of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity in determining invasion success of a clonal weed in the USA and China. Front Plant Sci 7:213PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Gosper CR, Vivian-Smith G (2009) Approaches to selecting native plant replacements for fleshy-fruited invasive species. Restor Ecol 17:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guan GQ, Han YG, Yin R, Huo Q, Miao Q, Wang WH, Wang SZ, Goa DG, Li SD (1995) Studies on displacing and controlling of the ragweeds with economic plant. J Shenyang Agric Univ 26:277–283Google Scholar
  39. Guo WC, Tu EX, Xu YM, Liu J, Xu JJ, Wang PL, He J, Xia ZH, Fu WJ, Jing XY et al. (2011) Study and application on sustained and integrated control techniques of Colorado potato beetle. Xinjiang Agric Sci 48:197–203Google Scholar
  40. Guo WC, Wang ZA, Luo XL, Jin X, Chang J, He J, Tu EX, Tian YC, Si HJ, Wu JH (2016) Development of selectable marker-free transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A against the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Pest Manag Sci 72:497–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Horvitz N, Wang R, Zhu M, Wan FH, Nathan R (2014) A simple modeling approach to elucidate the main transport processes and predict invasive spread: river-mediated invasion of Ageratina adenophora in China. Water Resour Res 50:9738–9747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hu L, Li MG, Wei PP (2014) Salt tolerance of the invasive vine Mikania micrantha Kunth. Ecol Environ Sci 23(1):7–15Google Scholar
  43. Huang QQ, Qian C, Wang Y, Jia X, Dai XF, Zhang H, He L, Peng SL, Wang GX (2010) Determinants of the geographical extent of invasive plants in China: effects of biogeographical origin, life cycle and time since introduction. Biodivers Conserv 19:1251–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huang BK, Lei YL, Qin LP, Liu J (2012) Chemical composition and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil from the inflorescences of Solidago canadensis L., an invasive weed in Southeastern China. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 15:667–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang QQ, Shen YD, Li XX, Li SL, Fan ZW (2016) Invasive Eupatorium catarium and Ageratum conyzoides benefit more than does a common native plant from nutrient addition in both competitive and non-competitive environments. Ecol Res 31:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hulme PE (2008) Phenotypic plasticity and plant invasions: is it all Jack? Funct Ecol 22:3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jenkins PT, Mooney HA (2006) The United States, China, and invasive species: present status and future prospects. Biol Invasions 8:1589–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jin L, Gu YJ, Xiao M, Chen JK, Li B (2004) The history of Solidago canadensis invasion and the development of its mycorrhizal associations in newly-reclaimed land. Funct Plant Biol 31:979–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jin QA, Jin T, Lin YY, Wen HB, Tang ZZ (2015) Optimization of the method for pupation of Agasicles hygrophila at the outside stems. J Anhui Agric Sci 43:111–112Google Scholar
  50. Jiu M, Zhou XP, Tong L, Xu J, Yang X, Wan FH, Liu SS (2007) Vector-virus mutualism accelerates population increase of an invasive whitefly. PLoS One 2:e182PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kidane D, Yang NW, Wan FH (2015) Effect of cold storage on the biological fitness of Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Eur J Entomol 112:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lei YB, Wang WB, Feng YL, Zheng YL, Gong HD (2012) Synergistic interactions of CO2 enrichment and nitrogen deposition promote growth and ecophysiological advantages of invading Eupatorium adenophorum in Southwest China. Planta 236:1205–1213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Levine JM, D’Antonio CM (1999) Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li YP, Feng YL (2009b) Differences in seed morphometric and germination traits of crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) from different elevations. Weed Sci 57:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li WH, Zhang CB, Jiang HB, Xin GR, Yang ZY (2006) Changes in soil microbial community associated with invasion of the exotic weed, Mikania micrantha HBK. Plant Soil 281:309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Li WH, Zhang CB, Gao GJ, Zan QJ, Yang ZY (2007) Relationship between Mikania micrantha invasion and soil microbial biomass, respiration and functional diversity. Plant Soil 296:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li H, Qiang S, Qian YL (2008) Physiological response of different croftonweed (Eupatorium adenophorum) populations to low temperature. Weed Sci 56:196–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Li GY, Mo KL, Zhang GH, Li QF (2009a) Competition between Paspalum atuatum and Eupatorium catarium Veldkamp. Weed Sci 4:10–14Google Scholar
  59. Li YN, Fu JW, Guo JY, Zhu X, Huang SD, Wan FH (2011) Effects of release density on the population dynamics of the biocontrol agent, Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Entomol J East China 20:275–280Google Scholar
  60. Li QF, Li GY, Liu ZD (2012a) Field replacement control of Ageratum conyzoides with five pasture species. Chin Agric Sci Bull 28(35):13–18Google Scholar
  61. Li YP, Feng YL, Barclay G (2012b) No evidence for evolutionarily decreased tolerance and increased fitness in invasive Chromolaena odorata: implications for invasiveness and biological control. Plant Ecol 213:1157–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li GY, Hou XW, Zou YK, Liu ZD, Li QF (2013) Replacement control effects of three pasture species combinations on Ageratum conyzoides. Weed Sci 31(2):19–25Google Scholar
  63. Li HN, Xiao B, Liu WX, Wan FH (2014a) Changes in soil biota resulting from growth of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Compositae), enhance its success and reduce growth of co-occurring plants. J Integr Agric 13:1962–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li XF, Tian H, Zhang JL, Zhang GF, Chen MM, Wan FH (2014b) Identification of common whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China based on the 5′- and 3′-end sequences of the COI gene. Acta Entomol Sin 57:466–476Google Scholar
  65. Li S, Lao SB, Wang S, Guo XJ, Zhang F (2014c) Control effect of Orius sauteri collaborated with Encarsia formosa on Bemisia tabaci in the greenhouse. Nat Enemies Insects 36:978–982Google Scholar
  66. Li WM, Dita M, Wu W, Hu GB, Xie JH, Ge XJ (2015a) Resistance sources to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in banana wild relatives. Plant Pathol 64:1061–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li XM, She DY, Zhang DY, Liao WJ (2015b) Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Oecologia 177:669–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li YP, Feng YL, Chen YJ, Tian YH (2015c) Soil microbes alleviate allelopathy of invasive plants. Sci Bull 60:1083–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liao ZY, Zheng YL, Lei YB, Feng YL (2014) Evolutionary increases in defense during a biological invasion. Oecologia 174:1205–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lin W, Zhou GF, Cheng XY, Xu RM (2007) Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China. PLoS One 2:e1208PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu J, Liang SC, Liu FH, Wang RQ, Dong M (2005) Invasive alien plant species in China: regional distribution patterns. Divers Distrib 11:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu J, Cui BS, Dong SK, Wang J, Zhao SQ (2007a) The changes of community components and their horizontal patterns caused by highway construction in the Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region. Chin Sci Bull 52:213224Google Scholar
  73. Liu SS, de Barro PJ, Xu J, Luan JB, Zang LS, Ruan YM, Wan FH (2007b) Asymmetric mating interactions drive widespread invasion and displacement in a whitefly. Science 318:1769–1772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu XY, Zhu HK, Wu SH, Cheng YL, Liu FY, Wu P (2007c) Antitumor activity of diterpenoids from Solidago canadensis L. J Zhejiang Univ (Science Edition) 34:661–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu J, He WM, Zhang SM, Liu FH, Dong M, Wang RQ (2008) Effects of clonal integration on photosynthesis of the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. Photosynthetica 46:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu N, Li YC, Zhang RZ (2012) Invasion of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in China: dispersal, occurrence, and economic impact. Entomol Exp Appl 143:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu SS, Zhang GF, Wan FH (2014a) DNA barcoding and phylogenetic analysis of common species of the genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on mtDNA COI gene sequences. Acta Entomol Sin 57:343–355Google Scholar
  78. Liu TL, Song TQ, Zhang X, Yuan HB, Su LM, Li WL, Xu J, Liu SH, Chen LL, Chen TZ et al. (2014b) Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis. Nat Commun 5:4686PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2004) 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species. A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database. Published by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) a specialist group of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Retrieved 3 Aug 2016
  80. Lu XM, Ding JQ (2012) History of exposure to herbivores increases the compensatory ability of an invasive plant. Biol Invasions 14:649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lu ZJ, Ma KP (2005) Scale dependent relationships between native plant diversity and the invasion of croftonweed (Eupatorium adenophorum) in southwest China. Weed Sci 53:600–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lu ZJ, Ma KP (2006) Spread of the exotic croftonweed (Eupatorium adenophorum) across southwest China along roads and streams. Weed Sci 54:1068–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Luan JB, Yao DM, Zhang T, Walling LL, Yang M, Wang YJ, Liu SS (2013) Suppression of terpenoid synthesis in plants by a virus promotes its mutualism with vectors. Ecol Lett 16:390–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Luo Y, Liu Z, Gao L, Wang HH, Li CH, Liu GD (2009) Quality evaluation of the Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengel as organic manure. Chin Agric Sci Bull 25(7):179–182Google Scholar
  85. Luo LS, Sun LH, Yu Y, Zhao XX, Zhou MH (2011) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from Solidago canadensis by means of microwave irradiation activation. Chin J Environ Eng 5:1161–1165Google Scholar
  86. Ma J, Huangfu CH, Yi J, Yang DL (2011) Effects of four replacement plants on nutrient and enzymatic activities of soil invaded by Flaveria bidentis. Ecol Environ Sci 20:805–812Google Scholar
  87. McFadyen R (1988) Phytophagous insects recorded from C. odorata. Chromolaena odorata Newslett 2:5–23Google Scholar
  88. Niu HB, Liu WX, Wan FH, Li B (2007) An invasive aster (Ageratina adenophora) invades and dominates forest understories in China: altered soil microbial communities facilitate the invader and inhibit natives. Plant Soil 294(1–2):73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ogden JAE, Rejmánek M (2005) Recovery of native plant communities after the control of a dominant invasive plant species, Foeniculum vulgare: implications for management. Biol Conserv 125:427–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ou GT, Zhao YX, Jiang Y, Han Y, Xu DQ, Cai WD (2012) Biological substitution control of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. in the southern mountainous regions of Guizhou Province. For Pest Dis 31(2):23–26Google Scholar
  91. Pan XY, Geng YP, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK (2006a) The influence of abiotic stress and phenotypic plasticity on the distribution of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides along a riparian zone. Acta Oecol 30:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pan XY, Liang HZ, Sosa A, Geng YP, Li B, Chen JK (2006b) Patterns of morphological variation of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides): from native to invasive region. Biodivers Sci 14(3):232–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pan XY, Geng YP, Sosa A, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK (2007) Invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides: biology, ecology and management. Acta Phy Sin 45:884–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pan XY, Jia X, Fu DJ, Li B (2013) Geographical diversification of growth-defense strategies in an invasive plant. J Syst Cs Evol 51:308–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Qiang S, Chen GQ, Li BP, Meng L (2010) Invasive alien species in Chinese agricultural ecosystems and their management. Biodivers Sci 18:647–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Qiao WN, Wan FH, Zhang AB, Min L, Zhang GF (2012) Application of DNA barcoding technology for species identification of common thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) in China. Acta Entomol Sin 55:344–356Google Scholar
  97. Qin Z, Mao DJ, Quan GM, Zhang JE, Xie JF, DiTommaso A (2012) Physiological and morphological responses of invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) to different irradiances. Botany-Botanique 90:1284–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Qin RM, Zheng YL, Valiente-Banuet A, Callaway RM, Barclay GF, Pereyra CS, Feng YL (2013) The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader. New Phytol 197:979–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Quan GM, Mao DJ, Zhang JE, Xie JF, Xu HQ, An M (2015) Response of invasive Chromolaena odorata and two coexisting weeds to contrasting irradiance and nitrogen. Photosynthetica 53:419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rao Q, Xu YH, Zhang F, Luo C, Zhang HY, Devine GJ, Gorman K (2012) Parasitism of Encarsia formosa against Bemisia tabaci as affected by systemic and foliar applications of imidacloprid. Chin J Biol Control 28:467–472Google Scholar
  101. Shao H, Peng SL, Wei XY, Zhang DQ, Zhang C (2005) Potential allelochemicals from an invasive weed Mikania micrantha HBK. J Chem Ecol 31:1657–1668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Song LY, Li CH, Peng SL (2010) Elevated CO2 increases energy-use efficiency of invasive Wedelia trilobata over its indigenous congener. Biol Invasions 12:1221–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sun BY, Tan JZ, Wan ZG, Wan ZG, Gu FG, Zhu MD (2006) Allelopathic effects of extracts from Solidago canadensis L. against seed germination and seedling growth of some plants. J Environ Sci 18:304–309Google Scholar
  104. Sun X, Gao C, Guo LD (2013) Changes in soil microbial community and enzyme activity along an exotic plant Eupatorium adenophorum invasion in a Chinese secondary forest. Chin Sci Bull 58:4101–4108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. The Ministry of Agriculture of China. The alien species to be managed with priority in China (1st group). Announced 10 Sep 2013. Retrieved 5 Feb 2017
  106. Wan FH, Yang NW (2016) Invasion and management of agricultural alien insects in China. Annu Rev Entomol 61:77–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wan FH, Li BP, Guo JY (eds) (2008) Biological invasions: biological control theory and practice. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  108. Wan FH, Guo JY, Zhang F (eds) (2009a) Research on biological invasions in China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  109. Wan FH, Peng DL, Wang R (eds) (2009b) Biological invasions: risk analysis and early prevention. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  110. Wan FH, Feng J, Xu J (eds) (2011) Biological invasions: detection, surveillance and monitoring. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang ML, Feng YL (2005) Effects of soil nitrogen levels on morphology, biomass allocation and photosynthesis in Ageratina adenophora and Chromoleana odorata. Acta Phy Sin 29:697–705Google Scholar
  112. Wang ML, Feng YL, Li X (2006) Effects of soil phosphorus level on morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of Ageratina adenophora and Chromolaena odorata. Chin J Appl Ecol 17:602–606Google Scholar
  113. Wang H, Lai XL, Ma RY, Hu W (2008) Bionomics of Agasicles hygrophila, as the natural enemy for invasive weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Chin Bull Entomol 45:480–482Google Scholar
  114. Wang N, Yu FH, Li PX, He WM, Liu J, Yu GL, Song YB, Dong M (2009) Clonal integration supports the expansion from terrestrial to aquatic environments of the amphibious stoloniferous herb Alternanthera philoxeroides. Plant Biol 11:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang HF, Lopez-Pujol J, Meyerson LA, Qiu JX, Wang XK, Ouyang ZY (2011a) Biological invasions in rapidly urbanizing areas: a case study of Beijing, China. Biodivers Conserv 20:2483–2509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang R, Wang JF, Qiu ZJ, Meng B, Wan FH, Wang YZ (2011b) Multiple mechanisms underlie rapid expansion of an invasive alien plant. New Phytol 191:828–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wang WB, Wang RF, Lei YB, Liu C, Han LH, Shi XD (2013) High resource capture and use efficiency and prolonged growth season contribute to invasiveness of Eupatorium adenophorum. Plant Ecol 214:857–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang R, Wang XL, Wang S, Zhang F (2014) Evaluation of the potential biocontrol capacity of Orius sauteri (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). J Environ Entomol 36:983–989Google Scholar
  119. Wang CY, Xiao HG, Zhao LL, Liu J, Wang L, Zhang F, Shi YC, Du DL (2016) The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition. Ecotoxicology 25:555–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Weber E, Li B (2008) Plant invasions in China: what is to be expected in the wake of economic development? Bioscience 58:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wei SH, Zhang CX, Li XJ, Cui HL, Huang HJ, Sui BF, Meng QH, Zhang HJ (2009) Factors affecting buffalobur (Solanum rostratum) seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Sci 57:521–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wu XW, Luo J, Chen JK, Li B (2006) Spatial patterns of invasive alien plants in China and its relationship with environmental and anthropological factors. J Plant Ecol 30:576–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wu TM, Ding H, Liu ZL, Xu HG, Bian XM (2007) Effects of alien invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum on soil nutrients. J Ecol Rural Environ 23(2):94–96Google Scholar
  124. Wu AP, Yu H, Gao SQ, Huang ZY, He WM, Miao SL, Dong M (2009) Differential belowground allelopathic effects of leaf and root of Mikania micrantha. Trees Struct Funct 23:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Xiao B, Zhou W, Liu WX, Jiang ZL, Wan FH (2014a) Feedback of Ageratina adenophora soil microbe on A. adenophora and native plants. J Agric Sci Technol 16(4):151–158Google Scholar
  126. Xiao HF, Feng YL, Schaefer DA, Yang XD (2014b) Soil fungi rather than bacteria were modified by invasive plants, and that benefited invasive plant growth. Plant Soil 378:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Xie YH, Wen MZ, Yu D, Li YK (2004) Growth and resource allocation of water hyacinth as affected by gradually increasing nutrient concentrations. Aquat Bot 79:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Xie LJ, Zeng RS, Bi HH, Song YY, Wang RL, Su YJ, Chen M, Chen S, Liu YH (2010) Allelochemical mediated invasion of exotic plants in China. Allelopath J 25:31–50Google Scholar
  129. Xu HG, Qiang S (2011) China’s invasive alien species. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  130. Xu HG, Qiang S, Han ZM, Guo JY, Huang ZG, Sun HY, He SP, Ding H, Wu HR, Wan FH (2004a) The distribution and introduction pathway of alien invasive species in China. Biodivers Sci 12:626–638Google Scholar
  131. Xu KY, Ye WH, Cao HL, Deng X, Yang QH, Zhang Y (2004b) The role of diversity and functional traits of species in community invisibility. Bot Bull Acad Sin 45:149–157Google Scholar
  132. Xu HG, Ding H, Li MY, Qiang S, Guo JY, Han ZM, Huang ZG, Sun HY, He SP, Wu HR, Wan FH (2006) The distribution and economic losses of alien species invasion to China. Biol Invasions 8:1495–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Xu YJ, Huang J, Zhou A, Zeng L (2012a) Prevalence of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) venom allergic reactions in mainland China. Fla Entomol 95:961–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Xu HG, Qiang S, Genovesi P, Ding H, Wu J, Meng L, Han ZM, Miao JL, Hu BS, Guo JY et al. (2012b) An inventory of invasive alien species in China. NeoBiota 15:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Yang GQ, Wan FH, Liu WX, Zhang XW (2006) Physiological effects of allelochemicals from leachates of Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) on rice seedlings. Allelopath J 18:237–245Google Scholar
  136. Yang RY, Mei LX, Tang JJ, Chen X (2007a) Allelopathic effects of invasive Solidago canadensis L. on germination and growth of native Chinese plant species. Allelopath J 19:241–247Google Scholar
  137. Yang RY, Tang HJ, Yang YS, Chen X (2007b) Invasive and non-invasive plants differ in response to soil heavy metal lead contamination. Bot Stud 48:453–458Google Scholar
  138. Yang GQ, Qiu WR, Jin YN, Wan FH (2013) Potential allelochemicals from root exudates of invasive Ageratina adenophora. Allelopath J 32:233–241Google Scholar
  139. Yang RY, Zhou G, Zan ST, Guo FY, Su NN, Li J (2014a) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China. Acta Oecol 61:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yang SX, Liang SC, Yi LB, Xu BB, Cao JB, Guo YF, Zhou Y (2014b) Heavy metal accumulation and phytostabilization potential of dominant plant species growing on manganese mine tailings. Front Environ Sci Eng 8:394–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yin F, Huang M, Xu R, Liu SQ, Li JC, Chen YB, Zhang WD (2009) Analysis on Eupatorium hazards and development in its comprehensive utilization. J Catal 24(4):63–67Google Scholar
  142. Yin F, Hu J, Zhang WD, Li JC, Xu R, Chen YB, Liu SQ (2010a) The study on co-fermentation of hydrogen and methane production by Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Chin Sci Bull 55:3469–3476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yin XW, Li XY, Zhang L, Chen B (2010b) Resistance determination of the apple varieties against the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum. J Yunnan Agric Univ 25:29–33Google Scholar
  144. You WH, Han CM, Fang LX, Du DL (2016) Propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration influence the establishment and growth of an invasive clonal plant. Alternanthera philoxeroides. Front Plant Sci 7:568PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Yu XJ, Yu D, Lu ZJ, Ma KP (2005) A new mechanism of invader success: exotic plant inhibits natural vegetation restoration by changing soil microbe community. Chin Sci Bull 50:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yu WQ, Wan FH, He XH, Liu WZ, Liu WX, Zhang LL (2014) Soil microbes enhance competition ability of the exotic Ageratina adenophora Sprengel against native plant species. J Biosaf 23(3):156–164Google Scholar
  147. Yuan YG, Wang B, Zhang SS, Tang JJ, Tu C, Hu SJ, Yong JWH, Chen X (2013) Enhanced allelopathy and competitive ability of invasive plant Solidago canadensis in its introduced range. J Plant Ecol 6:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zhang PH, Luo WF, Yang YL (2006) Inhibition effect of leaf juice extracts of Eupatorium adenophorum on Phytophthora infestans. Southwest Chin J Agric Sci 19:246–250Google Scholar
  149. Zhang Q, Yao LJ, Yang RY, Yang XY, Tang JJ, Chen X (2007) Potential allelopathic effects of an invasive species Solidago canadensis on the mycorrhizae of native plant species. Allelopath J 20:71–77Google Scholar
  150. Zhang Q, Yang RY, Tang JJ, Chen X (2008) Competitive interaction between the invasive Solidago canadensis and native Kummerowia striata in lead contaminated soil. Bot Stud 49:385–391Google Scholar
  151. Zhang CL, Li YP, Feng YL, Zhen YL, Lei YB (2009a) Roles of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in Eupatorium adenophorum invasions in different altitude habitats. Acta Ecol Sin 29:1940–1946Google Scholar
  152. Zhang SS, Jin YL, Tang JJ, Chen X (2009b) The invasive plant Solidago canadensis L. suppresses local soil pathogens through allelopathy. Appl Soil Ecol 41:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zhang JM, Zhang F, Wang B (2010a) Controlling of Trialeurodes vaporariorum on tomato in protected areas by collaboratively using E. formosa and other methods. Vegetable 7:34–35Google Scholar
  154. Zhang Q, Yang RY, Tang JJ, Yang HS, Hu SJ, Chen X (2010b) Positive feedback between Mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion. PLoS One 5:e12380PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zhang GF, Meng XQ, Wan FH (2011a) Advances in identification techniques of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pargande). J Biosafety 20(1):81–88Google Scholar
  156. Zhang SS, Zhu WJ, Wang B, Tang JJ, Chen X (2011b) Secondary metabolites from the invasive Solidago canadensis L. accumulation in soil and contribution to inhibition of soil pathogen Pythium ultimum. Appl Soil Ecol 48:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhang T, Luan JB, Qi JF, Huang CJ, Li M, Zhou XP, Liu SS (2012) Begomovirus-whitefly mutualism is achieved through repression of plant defences by a virus pathogenicity factor. Mol Ecol 21:1294–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhang HJ, Wang RQ, Wang X, Du N, Ge XL, Du YD, Liu J (2015a) Recurrent water level fluctuation alleviates the effects of submergence stress on the invasive riparian plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. PLoS One 10:e0129549PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhang ZY, Zhang ZJ, Pan XY (2015b) Phenotypic plasticity of Alternanthera philoxeroides in response to shading: introduced vs. native populations. Biodivers Sci 23:18–22Google Scholar
  160. Zhang LL, Chen XY, Wen DZ (2016a) Interactive effects of rising CO2 and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus on nitrogen allocation in invasive weeds Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata. Biol Invasions 18:1391–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhang HJ, Liu FH, Wang RQ, Liu J (2016b) Roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. Front Plant Sci 7:551PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zhao WJ (2006) Studies on controlling Eichhornia crassipes with introducing natural enemies of Neochetina eichhorniae. Southwest Chin J Agric Sci 19:900–905Google Scholar
  163. Zhao X, Zheng GW, Niu XM, Li WQ, Wang FS, Li SH (2009) Terpenes from Eupatorium adenophorum and their allelopathic effects on Arabidopsis seeds germination. J Agric Food Chem 57:478–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhao YJ, Yang XJ, Xi XQ, Gao XM, Sun SC (2012) Phenotypic plasticity in the invasion of crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) in China. Weed Sci 60:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zhao XJ, Liu WY, Zhou M (2013) Lack of local adaptation of invasive crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora) in different climatic areas of Yunnan Province, China. J Plant Ecol 6:316–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zheng YL, Feng YL, Liu WX, Lao ZY (2009) Growth, biomass allocation, morphology, and photosynthesis of invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and its native congeners grown at four irradiances. Plant Ecol 203:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zheng YL, Feng YL, Lei YB, Liao ZY (2012) Comparisons of plastic responses to irradiance and physiological traits by invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and its native congeners. J Plant Physiol 169:884–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Zheng Y, Li DS, Zhang YP, Zhao YL (2014) Interspecific competition among three parasitoids of Bactrocera dorsalis. Chn J Biol Control 30:713–717Google Scholar
  169. Zheng YL, Feng YL, Zhang LK, Callaway RM, Valiente-Banuet A, Luo DQ, Liao ZY, Lei YB, Barclay GF, Pereyra CS (2015) Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader. New Phytol 205:1350–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Zhong S, Kui JX, Zhou ZW (2007) Planting displacement techniques for Eupatorium adenophorum in pasture. Plant Prot 33(3):16–19Google Scholar
  171. Zhou ZS, Guo JY, Li BP, Meng L, Fu JW, Chen HS, Ma MY, Shi MZ, Li M, Guo W et al. (2011) Distribution and regional control strategies of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) in China 20:263–266Google Scholar
  172. Zhou ZX, Pang JH, Guo WC, Zhong NQ, Tian YC, Xia GX, Wu JH (2012) Evaluation of the resistance of transgenic potato plants expressing various levels of Cry3A against the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) in the laboratory and field. Pest Manag Sci 68:1595–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zhou ZS, Guo JY, Wan FH (2015) Review on management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia using natural enemy insects. Chn J Biol Control 31:657–665Google Scholar
  174. Zhu XZ, Zhang JT, Ma KP (2011) Soil biota reduce allelopathic effects of the invasive Eupatorium adenophorum. PLoS One 6:e25393PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant ProtectionChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations