Types of Karst Features

  • Richard C. Benson
  • Lynn B. Yuhr

Abstract

There are a wide variety of surface and subsurface features associated with various karst terrains. They occur at a wide range of scale due to processes both past and present. However, not all features will be found at all locations. In general, the types of karst features can be divided into surface landforms and subsurface features. The surface landforms include sinkholes (dolines), areas of subsidence, sinking streams, springs and cave entrances. The subsurface features are the areas of dissolution within the rock. These subsurface landforms include tertiary porosity (enlarged fracture systems), open conduits some with flowing water and large caverns as well as buried sinkholes. Some of these subsurface landforms may have already caused subsidence or collapse features at the surface. The following chapter discusses the typical karst features that may be encountered. Understanding the type of karst features that can exist in a particular geologic setting will provide insights that can be used as a basis to guide the site characterization efforts.

References

  1. Aley T (1997) Groundwater tracing in the epikarst. In: Beck B, Stephenson JB (eds) Proceedings of the 6th multidisciplinary conference on sinkholes and the engineering and environmental impacts of karst, the engineering geology and hydrogeology of karst terranes, Springfield, Missouri. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp 207–211Google Scholar
  2. Aspacher B et al (2000) Beyond the blue. NSS News 58(5):13–20Google Scholar
  3. Cave Conservationist (1994) Newsletter of cave conservation and management. NSS 13(1), February, 24 p.Google Scholar
  4. Culver DC et al (1999) Distribution map of caves and cave animals in the United States. J Cave Karst Stud 61(3):139–140Google Scholar
  5. Dixon K (2011) Measuring Sarawak Chamber. The Mulu caves project: exploring the world’s largest caves. www.mulucaves.org. Accessed 21 June 2013
  6. Exley S (2004) The taming of the slough, a comprehensive history of peacock springs. In: Poucher S (ed) National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama, p 170Google Scholar
  7. Fookes PG et al (eds) (2005) Geomorphology for engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  8. Gentile RJ (1984) Paleocollapse structures: longview region, Kansas City, Missouri. Bull Assoc Eng Geol 21(2):229–247Google Scholar
  9. Gookin J (1997) Secrecy and discretion as a cave management tool. NSS News 55(4):114–136Google Scholar
  10. Gulden B (2012) Worlds longest caves. www.caverbob.com Accessed 3 June 2006
  11. Jones WK et al (eds) (2004) Proceedings of the 2003 epikarst symposium. Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 9Google Scholar
  12. Kincaid TR et al (2012) Demonstrating interconnection between a wastewater application facility and a first magnitude spring in a karstic watershead: tracer study of the southeast farm wastewater reuse facility, Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Geologic Survey, Report of Investigation 111Google Scholar
  13. Li F (2004) Introduction to karst Tiankeng in China. NSS News 62(8):220–221Google Scholar
  14. Milanovic T (2004) Water resources engineering in karst. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mount T (1973) Preliminary Alachua cave map. Consultant reportGoogle Scholar
  16. Mylroie JE (2005) Coastal caves. In: David CC, White WB (eds) Encyclopedia of caves. Elsevier, New York, pp 122–125Google Scholar
  17. Palmer AN (2007) Cave geology. Cave Books, an affiliate of the cave research foundation, Dayton, OhioGoogle Scholar
  18. Parks AM (1977) The forgotten frontier, Florida through the lens of Ralph Middleton Monroe. Banyan Books, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  19. Scott TM et al (2004) Springs of Florida. Florida Geologic Bulletin No. 66Google Scholar
  20. Sinclair WC, Stewart JW (1985) Sinkhole type, development and distribution in Florida, Florida Geologic Survey, Map Series 110Google Scholar
  21. Stamm D (1994) The springs of Florida. Pineapple Press, SarasotaGoogle Scholar
  22. Swarzenski PW, Holmes CW (2000) Re-examining the submarine spring at Crescent Beach, Florida. USGS Open File Report 00-158Google Scholar
  23. Taborosi D (2004) Field guide to caves and karst of Guam. Bess Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  24. Veni G (1980) Sorcerer’s cave map. In: The Texas caver, February 25(1)Google Scholar
  25. Waltham AC, Fookes PG (2003) Engineering classification of karst ground conditions. Q J Eng Geol Hydrol 36:101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Waltham AC et al (2005) Sinkholes and subsidence, karst and cavernous rocks in engineering and construction. Springer-Praxis, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. White WB (1988) Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. White WB, Culver DC (2005) Cave definition of. In: Culver DC, White WB (eds) Encyclopedia of caves. Elsevier, New York, pp 81–84Google Scholar
  29. Williams RA (2012) Braving caves. National Geographic Magazine, National Geographic Society, Washington, DC, 224(2):122–123, AugustGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilson WL (1995) Sinkhole and buried sinkhole densities and new sinkhole frequencies in karst of northwest Peninsular Florida. In: Beck BF (ed) Proceedings of the 5th multidisciplinary conference on sinkholes and the engineering and environmental impacts of karst: karst geohazards, Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 79–91Google Scholar
  31. Worthington SRH et al (2000) Matrix, fracture and channel components of storage and flow in a Paleozoic limestone aquifer. In: Sasowsky ID, Wicks CM (eds) Groundwater flow and contaminate transport in carbonate aquifers. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp 113–128Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard C. Benson
    • 1
  • Lynn B. Yuhr
    • 1
  1. 1.Technos, Inc.MiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations