Eutrophication in Tokyo Bay

Part of the Estuaries of the World book series (EOTW)


Tokyo Bay, located in the centre of Japan, has a temperate, humid climate. The bay is an enclosed environment, which is heavily populated and densely used. It is approximately 50-km long and 20-km wide and has an average depth of 15 m. Since 1950, increase in the concentration of population and industry in this river basin has caused radical changes in the coastal areas of Tokyo Bay. Some of these changes were eutrophication and a decline in the area of shallow sandy flats in the bay. As a result of eutrophication, Tokyo Bay has been affected by red tides (algal blooms) approximately 50 times a year and by blue tides (upwelling of hypoxic bottom water) approximately 3 times a year. The area of tidal flats has decreased by approximately 90 % over the last 100 years. These changes can affect the distribution of living organisms in the bay. The iconic richness of biological production in the shallow and tidal flats is under the threat of disappearance. On 26 March 2003, the Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council endorsed the ‘Action Plan for Tokyo Bay Renaissance’. The goal is to restore the beautiful coastal environment for people to enjoy and sustain its natural biodiversity. The challenge of restoration is just beginning. Important and practical future aims are as follows: (1) to sustain the monitoring campaign with the cooperation of various stakeholders; (2) to create and maintain habitat for benthos, sessile organisms and fish larvae using an ecosystem approach; and (3) to establish public participation mechanisms.


Eutrophication Enclosed bay Circulation Red tide Edo-mae culture Renaissance project 


  1. Ando H, Kashiwagi N, Ninomiya K, Ogura H, Kawai T (2005) Changes in the state of water pollution in Tokyo bay since 1980. Annual report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, Tokyo, pp 141–150Google Scholar
  2. Asai T, Ozasa H, Murakami K (1997) Effects of physical parameter on sessile assemblage. Technical Note of Port and Harbour Research Institute, Japan, 880, 27 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Asakura K (1907) Red tide in Tokyo Bay. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 34:451 p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Central Council for Environment (2004) Direction of 6th water quality control by total quantity, Report of the experts committee for water quality control by total quantity, Japan, 13 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Committee of editing board for historical record of Tokyo Inner Bay fisheries (1971) Historical Record of Tokyo Inner Bay Fisheries, Publishing Party of Historical Record of Tokyo Inner Bay Fisheries, 853 p (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Furota T (2005) Importance of network system among benthic-animal local populations in bay waters. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Agency, Annex 3, Japan, pp 35–46Google Scholar
  7. Furota T (1980) Seasonal variation of phytoplankton standing stocks in temperate embayment. Bull Plankton Soc Jpn 27:63–73 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Furota T (2005) Importance of network system among benthic-animal local populations in bay waters, Bulletin of Fisheries Reserach Agency, Annex 3, Japan, 35-46.Google Scholar
  9. Furukawa K (2011) Satoumi at work: an urban project in Tokyo, In: United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies Operating Unit Ishikawa/Kanazawa (2011). Biological and Cultural Diversity in Coastal Communities, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montyreal, Technical Series 61, pp 54–61Google Scholar
  10. Furukawa K, Ishimaru S (2012) Experiment on transparency monitoring in monitoring campaign of Tokyo Bay. In: Proceedings of JACZ, Japan (9-1-1)-(9-1-4) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Furukawa K, Okada T (2006) Tokyo bay: its environmental status–past, present, and future”. In: Wolanski E (ed) The environment in Asia Pacific harbours. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 35–45Google Scholar
  12. Hasegawa K, Hayashi T (2009) Nutrient status and nori (Porphyra) aquaculture in Tokyo Bay. Aquabiology 31(2):161–164Google Scholar
  13. Hinata H (2006) Effects of oceanic water intrusion on the Tokyo Bay environment. In: Wolanski E (ed) The environment in Asia Pacific harbours. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hinata H, Furukawa K (2006) Ecological network linked by the planktonic larvae of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Tokyo Bay. In: Wolanski E (ed) The environment in Asia Pacific harbours. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiyama Y, Kasuka T, Nose Y (1954) Size selection in fishing caused by size of hook and skill of Angler. Jpn J Ichthyology 2(3):134–137Google Scholar
  16. Igarashi M, Furukawa K (2007) Characteristics of spatial distribution of benthos and sessile organisms at Tokyo Bay shore. Annu J Civil Eng Ocean 23:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaizuka S (1993) Geographical and geological features of Tokyo Bay (in Japanese), Tsukiji Shokan, 211 p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Kakino J (1986) Effect on shellfish of blue tide in Tokyo Bay. Aquacult Fish Port Eng 22:41–47 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Kamimura S, Yoshida J, Okada T, Furukawa K (2011) Nationwide study on the sessile assemblage inhabiting coastal structures, Japan. Research report of National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Japan, 44, 51 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Ministry of Environment (2010) Mid-long term vision on enclosed sea. Report of round table conference on making a mid-long term vision on enclosed sea, Japan, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Morita K, Watanabe M, Furukawa K, Imamura H, Kameyama Y, Morohoshi K (2009) Habitat rehabilitation on environmental symbiosis type of seawall and its maintenance experiences under public-private partnership. Proc Civil Eng Ocean 25:987–992 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Nomura H (1998) Changes in red tide events and phytoplankton community composition in Tokyo Bay from the historical plankton records in a period between 1907 and 1997. Oceanogr Jpn 7:159–178 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ogura N (1993) Tokyo Bay–its environmental changes (in Japanese). Koseisha Koseikaku, Tokyo, 193 pp (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Okamura K (1907) Red tide in Kisarazu coastal area. Jpn J Fish 2:1–5 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Okubo A (1973) Effect of shoreline irregularities on streamwise dispersion in estuaries and other embayments. Neth J Sea Res 6:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oomura T, Morohoshi K, Hosokawa Y (2009) Benthic habitat restoration along seawall under co-benefit strategy with disaster prevention. Paper presented during the East Asian Seas Congress 2009. Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  27. Perillo GME (2009) Tidal courses: classification, origin and functionality. In: Perillo GME, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 185–209Google Scholar
  28. PIANC (2003) Ecological and engineering guidelines for wetlands restoration in relation to the development, operation and maintenance of navigation infrastructures. EnviCom report of WG7, The World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure, Belgium, 64 pGoogle Scholar
  29. Sakurai N, Boon-Keng L, Kobayashi K, Inoue H, Furukawa K, Hayakawa O (2008) Applies an adaptive management in practices of rebuilding creatures’ living spaces, revival of Edo-Mae. In: Proceedings of the 20th ocean engineering symposium, JapanGoogle Scholar
  30. Satoh C, Furukawa K, Okada T (2006) Macrobenthic fauna as restoration objectives and its constraints in Keihin Canal, Japan. Annu J Civil Eng Ocean 22:211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suzuki T, Matsuyama M, Nagashima H (1997) A numerical experiment on the formation of circulation and upwelling by Northeasterly wind and stratified Tokyo Bay. Bull Coast Oceanogr 35(1):99–108Google Scholar
  32. Takao T, Okada T, Nakayama K, Furukawa K (2004) Seasonal variation of residence time of sea water in Tokyo Bay during 2002. Technical Note of National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Montyreal, Japan 169, pp 1–78 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. Tokyo Bay Marine Environment Research Committee (2011) Tokyo Bay–restoration of relation between human and nature. Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo, 399 pGoogle Scholar
  34. Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council (2003) Action plan of the Tokyo Bay renaissance, Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council, Tokyo, 36 p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council (2013) Action plan of the Tokyo Bay renaissance (2nd phase), Tokyo Bay Renaissance Promotion Council, Tokyo, 39 p (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Tokyo Metropolitan City (2011) Report of public water quality monitoring 2011, Tokyo metropolitan city, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Unoki S (1998) Rivers viewed from the sea. Oceanogr Jpn, Japan 5:327–332 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Unoki S, Kishino M (1977) Currents and water exchange in Tokyo Bay. Technical report of Physical Oceanography Laboratory in Institute of Physical and Chemical Research 1, 1–86 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. Yanagi T (2006) A summary of “open-ocean originated phosphorus and nitrogen in the coastal sea”. Bull Coast Oceanogr 43(2):101–103Google Scholar
  40. Yanagi T (2007) Sato-umi, a new concept for coastal sea management. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  41. Yanagi T, Onishi K (1999) Change of tide, tidal current, and sediment due to reclamation in Tokyo Bay. Oceanogr Jpn 8:411–415 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoshikawa K, Motonaga Y (2006) Post-evaluative study of flood damage mitigation in the basin of gentle flowing rivers on a low-lying plain. J Jpn Soc Hydol Water Resour 19(4):267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ocean Policy Research InstituteSasakawa Peace FoundationTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Oceanic Studies and Integrated EducationYokohama National UniversityHodogayaJapan

Personalised recommendations