Advertisement

Squatters and Politics in Montevideo at the Turn of the Century

  • María José Álvarez-RivadullaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the history of the informal city in Montevideo from a social movement perspective. It argues that, like other more structured social movements in the region, squatters were affected by neoliberal reforms and democratization in the past decades of the twentieth century. It focuses particularly on the role of two political opportunities stemming from democratization, namely electoral competition and decentralization. While the first one gave squatters influential allies, the second one opened institutional access for them. Yet, not all squatters were equally endowed to seize those opportunities. Those with more political networks, organizational experience, and better socioeconomic conditions were better able to use those opportunities to seize land, plan their neighborhoods, and get goods and services for them. Based on quantitative and qualitative data on land seizures and neighborhood histories, respectively, the article argues for an interactive theory of mobilization that considers both hardships and political factors to understand squatting.

Keywords

Civil Society Social Movement Municipal Government Urban Poor Electoral Competition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Almeida, P. (2010). Social movement partyism: Collective action and oppositional political parties. In N. Van Dyke & H. J. McCammon (Eds.), Strategic alliances: Coalition building and social movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alsayyad, N. (1993). Squatting and culture: A comparative analysis of informal developments in Latin America and the Middle East. Habitat International, 171, 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alsayyad, N., & Roy, A. (2003). Prologue/dialogue. Urban informality: Crossing borders. In N. Alsayyad & A. Roy (Eds.), Urban informality. Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia. Lanham and London: Lexington.Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez-Rivadulla, M. J. (2000). Asentamientos irregularesmontevideanos: la desafiliación resistida. Documento (IPES Working Paper 4). Montevideo: Universidad Católica del Uruguay. http://www.ucu.edu.uy/sites/default/files/facultad/dcsp/asentamientos_irregulares.pdf. Accesed 8 May 2015.
  5. Alvarez-Rivadulla, M. J. (2012a). Clientelism or something else? Squatter’s politics in Montevideo. Latin American Politics & Society, 54, 37–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Álvarez-Rivadulla, M. J. (2012b). The weakness of symbolic boundaries: Resisting exclusion among Montevideo’s squatters. In XXX International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association. San Francisco.Google Scholar
  7. Amarante, V., & Caffera, M. (2003). Los factores determinantes de la formación de asentamientos irregulares. Un análisis económico. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economía, Universidad de Montevideo, 2, 61–95.Google Scholar
  8. Amarante, V., & Arim, R. (2004). El mercado laboral: cambios estructurales y el impacto de la crisis. 1986–2002. In WTO (Ed.) Uruguay. Empleo y Protección Social. De la crisis al crecimiento. Santiago de Chile: Oficina Subregional de la OIT para el Cono Sur de América Latina.Google Scholar
  9. Arim, R., & Vigorito, A. (2007). Un análisis multidimensional de la pobreza en Uruguay. 1991–2005 (Working paper DT 10/06). Montevideo: Instituto de Economía, Universidad de la República. http://www.iecon.ccee.edu.uy/dt-10-06-un-analisis-multidimensional-de-la-pobreza-en-uruguay-1991-2005/publicacion/116/es/. Accessed 8 May 2015.
  10. Auyero, J. (2000). Poor people’s politics. Peronist survival networks & the legacy of evita. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Auyero, J., Lapegna, P., & Poma, F. P. (2009). Patronage politics and contentious collective action: A recursive relationship. Latin American Politics and Society, 51, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baiocchi, G. (2005). Militants and citizens: The politics of participatory democracy in Porto Alegre. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baudrón, S. (1979). Estudio Socioeconómico de algunos barrios marginales de Montevideo. Montevideo: Fundación de cultura Universitaria- Ciedur.Google Scholar
  14. Bayat, A. (2004). Globalization and the politics of the informals in the global South. In A. Roy & N. Alsayyad (Eds.), Urban informality. transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  15. Benton, L. A. (1986). Reshaping the Urban Core: The politics of housing in authoritarian Uruguay. Latin American Research Review, 21(2), 33–52.Google Scholar
  16. Bon Espasandín, M. (1963). Cantegriles. Montevideo: Tupac Amaru.Google Scholar
  17. Bucheli, G., Curto, V., Sanguinetti, V., Demasi, C., & Yaffé, J. (2005). Vivos los llevaron: Historia de la lucha de Madres y Familiares de Uruguayos Detenidos Desaparecidos (1976–2005). Montevideo: Ediciones Trilce.Google Scholar
  18. Burgwal, G. (1995). Struggle of the poor: Neighborhood organization and clientelist practice in a quito squatter settlement. Amsterdam: CEDLA.Google Scholar
  19. Caldeira, T. (1990). Women, daily life and politics. In E. Jelin (Ed.), Women and social change in Latin America. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  20. Canel, E. (1992). Democratization and the Decline of Urban Social Movements in Uruguay: A Political Institutional Account. In A. Escobar & S. E. Álvarez (Ed.), The Making of Social Movements in Latin America. Boulder: Westnew Press.Google Scholar
  21. Canel, E. (2010). Barrio democracy in Latin America. Participatory decentralization and community activism in Montevideo. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Castells, M. (1983). The City and the grassroots. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cecilio, M. (1997). Relevamiento de Asentamientos Irregulares de Montevideo. In Asentamientos Irregulares. Montevideo: Ministerio de Ordenamiento Territorial y Medio Ambiente. Comisión para la normalización de asentamientos irregulares.Google Scholar
  24. Cecilio, M., Couriel, J., Spallanzani, M., Bombaci, O., & Medina, M. (1999). La gestión urbana en la generación de los tejidos residenciales de la periferia de Montevideo: Areas acupadas por los sectores de población de bajos y medios ingresos. Montevideo: Universidad de la República, Facultad de Arquitectura.Google Scholar
  25. Chávez, D., & Goldfrank, B. (2004). La izquierda en la ciudad. Participación en los gobiernos locales de América Latina. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Collier, D. (1976). Squatters and oligarchs. Authoritarian rule and policy change in Perú. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Cornelius, W. A. (1974). Urbanization and Political Demand Making: Political Participation Among the Migrant Poor in Latin American Cities. The American Political Science Review, 68(3), 1125–1146.Google Scholar
  28. Cornelius, W. A. (1977). Leaders, followers, and official patrons in urban Mexico. In S. W. Schmidt, L. Guasti, C. H. Lande, & J. Scott (Eds.), Friends, followers, and factions. A reader in political clientelism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, D. E. (1999). The power of distance: Re-Theorizing social movements in Latin America. Theory and Society, 28, 585–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dietz, H. A. (1998). Urban poverty, political participation and the State. Lima 1970-1990. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  31. Dosh, P. (2010). Demanding the land: Urban popular movements in Peru and Ecuador, 1990–2005. vol. PhD. State College: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Eckstein, S. (1977). The poverty of revolution: The state and the urban poor in Mexico. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Escobar, A., & Alvarez, S. E. (1992). The making of social movements in Latin America: Identity, strategy, and democracy. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  34. Evers, T. (1985). Identity: The hidden side of new social movements in Latin America. In D. Slater (Ed.), New social movements and the state in Latin America. Amsterdam: CEDLA.Google Scholar
  35. Falero, A. (2004). Sociedad civil y construcción de nueva subjetividad social en Uruguay: condicionamientos, conflictos, desafíos. In J. Seoane (Ed.), Movimientos sociales y conflicto en América Latina. Buenos Aires: CLACSO.Google Scholar
  36. Filgueira, C. (1985). Movimientos Sociales en la restauración del orden democrático: Uruguay, 1985. In C. Filgueira (Ed.), Movimientos Sociales en el Uruguay de Hoy. Montevideo: CLACSO-CIESU-Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.Google Scholar
  37. Filgueira, F., Garcé, A., Ramos, C., & Yaffé, J. (2003). Los dos ciclos del Estado uruguayo en el siglo XX. In I. d. C. Política (Ed.), El Uruguay del siglo XX. La Política. Montevideo: Banda Oriental.Google Scholar
  38. Gay, R. (1994). Popular organization and democracy in Rio de Janeiro. A tale of two favelas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gilbert, A. (1994). The Latin American city. London: The Latin America Bureau.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldfrank, B. (2002). The fragile flower of local democracy: A case study of decentralization/participation in Montevideo. Politics and Society, 30, 51–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gonzalez, M. (1989). Las comisiones vecinales en el departamento de Montevideo: Elementos para su discusión a partir de los resultados de una encuesta. Montevideo: CIESU.Google Scholar
  42. Handelman, H. (1975). The political mobilization of urban squatter settlements. Santiago’s recent experience and its implications for urban research. Latin American Research Review, 10, 35–72.Google Scholar
  43. Harvey, D. (2008). The right to the city. New Left Review, 53, 23–40.Google Scholar
  44. Hipsher, P. L. (1998). Democratic transitions and social movement outcomes: The chilean shantytown dweller's movement in comparative perspective. In M. G. Giugni, D. McAdam, & C. Tilly (Ed.), From contention to democracy. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Holston, J. (1991). Autoconstruction in working-class Brasil. Cultural Anthropology, 6, 447–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hyden, G. (1997). Civil society, social capital, and development: Dissection of a complex discourse. Studies in Comparative International Development, 32, 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. INE-PIAI. (2006). Relevamiento de Asentamientos 2006.Google Scholar
  48. INE. (1998). Relevamiento de Asentimientos Irregulares [PowerPoint slides]. Montevideo: National Institute of Statistics. http://www.ine.gub.uy/piai3/presentacion.pdf.
  49. INTEC. (1995). Relevamiento de Asentimientos Irregulares de Montevideo. Montevideo: INTEC.Google Scholar
  50. Johnston, H., & Almeida, P. (2006). Latin American social movements: Globalization, democratization, and transnational networks. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  51. Kaztman, R. (2001). Seducidos y abandonados: El asilamiento social de los pobres urbanos. Revista De La Cepal (santiago De Chile), 75, 171–189.Google Scholar
  52. Kaztman, R., Corbo, G., Filgueira, F., Furtado, M., Gelber,D., Retamoso, A., & Rodríguez, F. (2004). La ciudad fragmentada: mercado, territorio y marginalidad en Montevideo (CSUIM Working Paper # 02-UR-01). Austin: PRC-University of Texas. http://www.redligare.org/IMG/pdf/montevideo_ciudad_fragmentada.pdf. Acceseed 15 May 2015.
  53. Kaztman, R., Filgueira, F., & Errandonea, F. (2005). La Ciudad Fragmentada. Respuesta de los sectores populares urbanos a las transformaciones del mercado y el territorio en Montevideo. In A. Portes, B. Roberts, & A. Grimson (Eds.), Ciudades Latinoamericanas. Un Análisis Comparativo en el Umbral del Nuevo Siglo. Buenos Aires: Prometeo.Google Scholar
  54. Luna, J. P. (2006). Programmatic and non-programmatic voter linkages in two institutionalized party systems: Chile and Uruguay in comparative perspective. Chapel Hill: Political Science.Google Scholar
  55. Luna, J. P. (2007). Frente Amplio and the Crafting of a Social Democratic Alternative in Uruguay. Latin American Politics & Society, 49(4), 1–30.Google Scholar
  56. Mazzei, E., & Veiga, D. (1985). Pobreza Urbana en Montevideo. Nueva encuesta en “cantegriles” (1984). Montevideo: CIESU-Banda Oriental.Google Scholar
  57. McAdam, D. (1982). Political process and the development of black insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. McAdam, D., McCarthy, J., & Zald, M. N. (1996). Comparative perspectives on social movements: Political opportunities, mobilizing structures and cultural framings. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Menéndez, F. J. (2008). Condiciones de vida en Montevideo 2do semestre 2008. In Documentos Temáticos vol. 1. Montevideo: Instituto Nacional de Estadística.Google Scholar
  60. Merklen, D. (1997). Organización comunitaria y práctica política. Las ocupaciones de tierras en el conurbano de Buenos Aires. Nueva Sociedad, 149, 162–177.Google Scholar
  61. Midaglia, C. (1992). Las formas de acción colectiva en Uruguay. Montevideo: CIESU.Google Scholar
  62. Mieres, P. (1988). Cómo Votan los Uruguayos. Montevideo: CLAEH & Banda Oriental.Google Scholar
  63. Mieres, P. (1994). Desobediencia y Lealtad. El voto en el Uruguay de fin de Siglo. Montevideo: Fin de Siglo.Google Scholar
  64. Mirza, C. A. (2006). Movimientos sociales y sistemas políticos en América Latina: la construcción de nuevas democracias. Buenos Aires: CLACSO.Google Scholar
  65. Moreira, C. (2005). El voto moderno y el voto clasista revisado: Explicando el desempeño electoral de la izquierda en las elecciones de 2004 en Uruguay. In D. Buquet (Ed.), Las Claves del Cambio. Montevideo: Banda Oriental-Instituto de Ciencia Política.Google Scholar
  66. Moreira, C. (2011). Movimientos populares y luchas sociales en Uruguay. In M. Mondonesi & J. N. Rebón (Eds.), Una década en movimiento: luchas populares en América Latina en el amanecer del siglo XXI. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, Prometeo Libros.Google Scholar
  67. Myers, D. J., & Henry, A. D. (2002). Capital city politics in Latin America. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  68. Nahoum, B. (2002). Los asentamientos irregulares, entre prevenir y curar. Paper presente at the Primeras jornadas uruguayas de asentamientos informales. Montevideo.Google Scholar
  69. Oxhorn, P. (1995). Organizing civil society. The popular sectors and the struggle for democracy in Chile. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Özler, S. I. (2003). Squatters stand up: Political institutions and demand making in the developing world. Los Angeles: Political Science, University of California..Google Scholar
  71. Panizza, F., & Adolfo, P. P. (1988). Estado Y Sociedad. Montevideo: FESUR.Google Scholar
  72. Programa de Mejoramiento de Barrios-Unidad de Evaluación y Monitoreo. (2013). Informe Técnico: Relevamiento de Asentamientos Irregulares. Primeros Resultados de Población y Viviendas a partir del Censo 2011. http://pmb.mvotma.gub.uy/sites/default/files/informe_asentamientos_censo_2011_19-10-2012.pdf.
  73. Portes, A., & Walton, J. (1976). Urban Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  74. Portes, A. (1989). Latin American urbanization during the years of the crisis. Latin American Research Review, 243, 7–44.Google Scholar
  75. Prévôt Schapira, M.-F. (1999). From Utopia to pragmatism: The heritage of basismo in local government in the greater Buenos aires region. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 18, 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rama, G. (1971). El Club Político. Montevideo: ARCA.Google Scholar
  77. Roberts, B. R. (1973). Organizing strangers. Poor families in Guatemala City. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  78. Roberts, K. M. (1997). Review: Beyond romanticism: Social movements and the study of political change in Latin America. Latin American Research Review, 32, 137–151.Google Scholar
  79. Roberts, B. R., & Portes, A. (2006). Coping with the Free Market City: Collective Action in Six Latin American Cities at the End of the Twentieth Century. Latin American Research Review, 41(2), 57–83.Google Scholar
  80. Rodé, P., Marsiglia, J., & Piedracueva, E. (1985). Experiencias recientes de movilización urbana en las áreas de la salud, nutrición y organización barrial. In C. H. Filgueira (Ed.), Movimientos sociales en el Uruguay de hoy. Montevideo: CLACSO-CIESU-Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.Google Scholar
  81. Santos, C., Valdomir, S., Iglesias, V., & Renfrew, D. (2006). Aguas en movimiento: La resistencia a la privatización del agua en Uruguay. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Canilla.Google Scholar
  82. Schneider, C. L. (1995). Shantytown protest in pinochet’s Chile. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Feldman D. (interviewer), A. Garcia (interviewer) & J. Villamide (interviewee). (2011, March 28). No creció el número de asentamientos sino la cantidad de personas que vive en ellos. Semanario Voces. http://www.voces.com.uy/entrevistas-1/juliovillamide%E2%80%9Cnocrecioelnumerodeasentamientossinolacantidaddepersonasquevivenenellos%E2%80%9D.
  84. Stokes, S. (1991). Politics and Latin America’s urban poor: Reflections from a lima shantytown. Latin American Research Review, 26, 75–101.Google Scholar
  85. Stokes, S. C. (1995). Cultures in conflict: Social movements and the state in Peru. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  86. Tarrow, S. (1989). Democracy and disorder. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  87. Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tarrow, S. (1999). Studying contentious politics: From event-ful history to cycles of collective action. In R. Koopmans, D. Rucht, & F. Neidhardt (Eds.), Acts of dissent. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  89. Tilly, C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  90. Touraine, A. (1987). Actores Sociales y Sistemas Políticos en América Latina. Santiago: PREALC/OIT.Google Scholar
  91. Veneziano Esperón, A. (2005). Reflexiones sobre una reforma orientada al ciudadano. La descentralización participativa de Montevideo. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Administración Pública.Google Scholar
  92. Viana, I., Zuccolini, S., & Casanova, R. (2006. Mercado de suelo urbano formal-informal. Montevideo: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy-Instituto del Suelo Urbano.Google Scholar
  93. Villamide, J. s.d.. Crecimiento Imparable. Revista Propiedades, 183, 3–5.Google Scholar
  94. Walton, J. (1998). Urban conflict and social movements in poor countries: Theory and evidence of collective action. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22, 460–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Walton, J., & Ragin, C. (1990). Global and national sources of political protest: Third world responses to the debt crisis. American Sociological Review, 55, 876–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de SociologíaUniversidad del RosarioBogotaColombia

Personalised recommendations