Two Area Load Frequency Control of Hybrid Power System Using Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution Tuned PID Controller in Deregulated Environment

  • Gargi Konar
  • Kamal Krishna Mandal
  • Niladri Chakraborty


Load frequency control (LFC) of interconnected power system ensures zero steady state error in frequency dynamics and proper sharing of load by generators. Use of PID controllers in LFC enhances smooth and efficient control of area control error (ACE). For the sake of sustainable and environment friendly power generation, use of renewable energy sources along with non-renewable one are accentuated to generate power in open market scenario these days. In this work, PID controllers tuned with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Differential Evolution (DE) are used for two area LFC with thermal, hydro and diesel generators. The incorporation of PID controller gives desired power system dynamic responses. It is observed that frequency reaches the steady state value within reasonable time and generators of connected areas share the tie line power according to their participation factors. MATLAB codes are developed for GA and DE based tuning of PID controller. The optimized values of PID gains are used to study the power system dynamics due to change in loads using Simulink.


Area control error Differential evolution DISCO GENCO Genetic algorithm Hybrid power generation PID controller Tie line power 



This work was supported by Departmental Research Scheme (DRS) of University Grant Commission of Government of India awarded to the Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University in the year 2003.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gargi Konar
    • 1
  • Kamal Krishna Mandal
    • 1
  • Niladri Chakraborty
    • 1
  1. 1.Power Engineering DepartmentJadavpur University Saltlake CampusKolkataIndia

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