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Carbon Footprint – An Environmental Sustainability Indicator of Large Scale CO2 Sequestration

  • Dragoljub BilanovicEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

To slow down the degeneration of the planetary life support system atmospheric CO2 concentration must be reduced. There are no insignificant CO2 emissions since all CO2 ends-up in a single atmosphere of finite size. To minimize anthropogenic CO2 emissions and to bring its atmospheric concentration to 320 ppm, the world economies should replace fossil fuels with alternative energy sources and construct large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2.

Environmental indicators (EIs) gauge the burden of goods and services on the environment. The carbon footprint (CF) is the EI of greenhouse gas emissions and is measured in terms of CO2 equivalent.

This chapter brings preliminary estimation of CFs for the following CO2 reduction technologies: photosynthetic or microalgae CO2 sequestration (MCS), artificial photosynthesis (AP), ocean iron fertilization (OIF), oceanic CO2 sequestration (OCS), and terrestrial CO2 sequestration (TCS).

OIF, OCS, and TCS should not be considered when constructing the large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2 because each of these technologies could easily become a source of greenhouse gases. The large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2 should rely on MCS and AP technologies and reforestation.

Keywords

Carbon footprint CO2 reduction technology Microalgae 

Abbreviations

ACO2

atmospheric CO2

CF

carbon footprint

CFA

carbon footprints of affluence

CFP

carbon footprints of population

CFT

carbon footprints of technology

CFAP

carbon footprint of artificial photosynthesis

CFMCS

carbon footprint of photosynthetic or microalgae CO2 sequestration

CFOCS

carbon footprint of oceanic CO2 sequestration

CFOIF

carbon footprint of ocean iron fertilization

CFTCS

carbon footprint of terrestrial CO2 sequestration

CHC

cost of chemicals

COC

construction costs

CO2E

carbon dioxide equivalent

EIs

environmental indicators

EQI

equivalent inhabitant

GHG

greenhouse gas

GDP

gross domestic product

GWP

global warming potential

LAC

labor costs

MCF

median carbon footprint

MPI

marketable product income

OEN

cost of energy consumed, excluding energy used to transport CO2 or Fe

OMC

operation and maintenance expenses

OTC

other expenses

PI

pollution intensity

TRC

cost of energy to transport CO2 or Fe via pipeline, tanker or both

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Environmental, Earth, and Space StudiesBemidji State UniversityBemidjiUSA

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