Carbon Footprint – An Environmental Sustainability Indicator of Large Scale CO2 Sequestration

  • Dragoljub BilanovicEmail author


To slow down the degeneration of the planetary life support system atmospheric CO2 concentration must be reduced. There are no insignificant CO2 emissions since all CO2 ends-up in a single atmosphere of finite size. To minimize anthropogenic CO2 emissions and to bring its atmospheric concentration to 320 ppm, the world economies should replace fossil fuels with alternative energy sources and construct large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2.

Environmental indicators (EIs) gauge the burden of goods and services on the environment. The carbon footprint (CF) is the EI of greenhouse gas emissions and is measured in terms of CO2 equivalent.

This chapter brings preliminary estimation of CFs for the following CO2 reduction technologies: photosynthetic or microalgae CO2 sequestration (MCS), artificial photosynthesis (AP), ocean iron fertilization (OIF), oceanic CO2 sequestration (OCS), and terrestrial CO2 sequestration (TCS).

OIF, OCS, and TCS should not be considered when constructing the large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2 because each of these technologies could easily become a source of greenhouse gases. The large facilities for reduction of atmospheric CO2 should rely on MCS and AP technologies and reforestation.


Carbon footprint CO2 reduction technology Microalgae 



atmospheric CO2


carbon footprint


carbon footprints of affluence


carbon footprints of population


carbon footprints of technology


carbon footprint of artificial photosynthesis


carbon footprint of photosynthetic or microalgae CO2 sequestration


carbon footprint of oceanic CO2 sequestration


carbon footprint of ocean iron fertilization


carbon footprint of terrestrial CO2 sequestration


cost of chemicals


construction costs


carbon dioxide equivalent


environmental indicators


equivalent inhabitant


greenhouse gas


gross domestic product


global warming potential


labor costs


median carbon footprint


marketable product income


cost of energy consumed, excluding energy used to transport CO2 or Fe


operation and maintenance expenses


other expenses


pollution intensity


cost of energy to transport CO2 or Fe via pipeline, tanker or both


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Environmental, Earth, and Space StudiesBemidji State UniversityBemidjiUSA

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