Advertisement

Morphospaces and Databases: Diatom Diversification through Time

  • Benjamin KotrcEmail author
  • Andrew H. Knoll
Chapter
Part of the Biologically-Inspired Systems book series (BISY, volume 6)

Abstract

The diversity of diatom form inspired Art Nouveau designers, an interest renewed by recent advances in biomimetic design. The fossil record provides two windows on the diversification history of diatoms: taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity. Marine planktonic diatom diversity is conventionally interpreted to describe a steep, almost monotonic rise through Cenozoic time. Subsampling methods used to address the associated rise in sampling reveal a more stationary pattern, with peak diversity in the mid-Cenozoic, whether by established methods or a new method (shareholder quorum subsampling, SQS). However, these methods may underestimate diversification if evenness decreases. In order to measure morphological disparity, we constructed an empirical morphospace based on discrete characters. Mean pairwise distance, a disparity metric describing the density of taxa in morphospace, shows little secular change , while convex hull volume, a measure of the extent of occupied morphospace, increases through time. Since we populated the morphospace with occurrence-based data, we can apply subsampling algorithms to these disparity metrics. Mean pairwise distance is largely unaffected, while the increase in occupied volume largely disappears under subsampling. Depending on the metric used, characterizing diatom diversification thus depends upon whether a literal reading of the fossil record or the use of subsampling algorithms is preferred. While this may prompt a reexamination of evolutionary narratives prominently featuring diatom diversification, changes in abundance and silicification may also affect the diatom’s biogeochemical importance. For biologically inspired design, an early exploration of diatom morphospace suggests that fossil forms should be considered alongside extant diatoms.

Keywords

Morphospaces, diatoms Diversification Taxonomic diversity Evolution Biodiversity, phylogeny, fossil record 

References

  1. Alroy J (1996) Constant extinction, constrained diversification, and uncoordinated stasis in North American mammals. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 127:285–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alroy J (2000) New methods for quantifying macroevolutionary patterns and processes. Paleobiology 26:707–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alroy J, Aberhan M, Bottjer DJ et al (2008) Phanerozoic Trends in the Global Diversity of Marine Invertebrates. Science 321:97–100Google Scholar
  4. Alroy J (2010a) Fair sampling of taxonomic richness and unbiased estimation of origination and extinction rates. Paleontol Soc Pap 16:558–80Google Scholar
  5. Alroy J (2010b) The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups. Science 329:1191–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arita S, Ohtsuka T (2004) Describing the valve outlines of Navicula species using a newly described arc-constitutive model. Diatom 20:191–198Google Scholar
  7. Boyce CK, Knoll AH (2002) Evolution of developmental potential and the multiple independent origins of leaves in Paleozoic vascular plants. Paleobiology 28(1):70–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bush AM, Markey MJ, Marshall CR (2004) Removing bias from diversity curves: the effects of spatially organized biodiversity on sampling-standardization. Paleobiology 30(4):666–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler R, Brusatte S, Andres B, Benson R (2012) How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity. Evolution 66:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ciampaglio CN, Kemp M, McShea DW (2001) Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: characterization and analysis of measures of disparity. Paleobiology 27(4):695–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeMaster DJ (2003) The Diagenesis of Biogenic Silica: Chemical Transformations Occurring in the Water Column, Seabed, and Crust. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on Geochemistry, vol 7. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 87–98Google Scholar
  12. Eble GJ (2000) Theoretical morphology: state of the art. Paleobiology 26(3):520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ehrenberg CG (1838) Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Leopold Voss, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  14. Erwin DH (2007) Disparity: morphological pattern and developmental context. Palaeontology 50(1):57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Falkowski PG, Katz ME, Knoll AH, Quigg A, Raven JA, Schofield O, Taylor FJR (2004) The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton. Science 305:354–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Finkel ZV, Kotrc B (2010) Silica use through time: macroevolutionary change in the morphology of the diatom fustule. Geomicrobiol J 27:596–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flessa KW, Jablonski D (1983) Extinction is here to stay. Paleobiology 9(4):315–321Google Scholar
  18. Follows MJ, Dutkiewicz S, Grant S, Chisholm SW (2007) Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean. Science 315:1843–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foote M (1989) Perimeter-based Fourier analysis: a new morphometric method applied to the trilobite cranidium. J Paleont 63(6):880–885Google Scholar
  20. Foote M (1991) Morphological and taxonomic diversity in a clade’s history: the Blastoid record and stochastic simulations. Contrib Mus Paleo Univ Mich 28(6):101–140Google Scholar
  21. Foote M (1992) Rarefaction analysis of morphologic and taxonomic diversity. Paleobiology 18:1–16Google Scholar
  22. Gersonde R, Harwood DM (1990) Lower Cretaceous diatoms from ODP Leg 113 Site 693 (Weddell Sea). Part 1. Vegetative cells. Proc ODP Sci Results 113:365–402Google Scholar
  23. Gombos AM (1980) The early history of the Diatom family Asterolampraceae. Bacillaria 3:227–272Google Scholar
  24. Good IJ (1953) The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population. Biometrika 40:237–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haeckel E (1904) Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut, LeipzigCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hutchinson, GE (1978) An introduction to population ecology. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  27. Kennett JP (1982) Marine geology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  28. Kooistra WHCF, Gersonde R, Medlin LK, Mann DG (2007) The origin and evolution of the diatoms: their adaptation to a planktonic existence. In: Falkowski PG, Knoll AH (eds) Evolution of primary producers in the sea. Elsevier Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Kotrc B (2013) Evolution of silica biomineralizing plankton. PhD thesis, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  30. Kotrc B, Knoll AH (2014) Data from: A morphospace of planktonic marine diatoms, parts I and II. Dryad Digital Repository. http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.js64t
  31. Kotrc B, Knoll AH (2015a) A morphospace of planktonic marine diatoms. I. Two views of disparity through time. Paleobiology (in press)Google Scholar
  32. Kotrc B, Knoll AH (2015b) A morphospace of planktonic marine diatoms. II. Sampling standardization and spatial disparity partitioning. Paleobiology (in press)Google Scholar
  33. Lazarus DB (1994) Neptune: a marine micropaleontology database. Math Geol 26(7):817–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lazarus DB (2011) The deep-sea microfossil record of macroevolutionary change in plankton and its study. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 358(1):141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lazarus DB, Kotrc B, Wulf G, Schmidt DN (2009) Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica. PNAS 106(23):9333–9338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lazarus DB, Weinkauf M, Diver P (2012a) Pacman profiling: a simple procedure to identify stratigraphic outliers in high-density deep-sea microfossil data. Paleobiology 38(1):144–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lazarus DB, Barron J, Türke A, Diver P, Renaudie J (2012b) Diversity history of Cenozoic planktic marine diatoms. The Micropalaeontological Society AGM and warm world symposium, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK, Nov. 11th–13thGoogle Scholar
  38. Lewontin RC (1969) The meaning of stability. Brookhaven Symp Biol 22:13–24Google Scholar
  39. Liow LH, Stenseth NC (2007) The rise and fall of species: implications for macroevolutionary and macroecological studies. Proc R Soc B 274:2745–2752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liow LH, Skaug HJ, Ergon T, Schweder T (2010) Global occurrence trajectories of microfossils: environmental volatility and the rise and fall of individual species. Paleobiology 36(2):224–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu Z, Pagani M, Zinniker D et al (2009) Global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Science 323(5981):1187–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lloyd GT, Pearson PN, Young JR, Smith AB (2012a) Sampling bias and the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera on land and in the deep sea. Paleobiology 38(4):569–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lloyd GT, Young JR, Smith AB (2012b) Comparative quality and fidelity of deep-sea and land-based nannofossil records. Geology 40(2):155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lupia R (1999) Discordant morphological disparity and taxonomic diversity during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation: North American pollen record. Paleobiology 25(1):1–28Google Scholar
  45. Mann DG, Droop SJM (1996) Biodiversity, biogeography and conservation of diatoms. Hydrobiologia 336(1):19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marshall, CR (1990) Confidence intervals on stratigraphic ranges. Paleobiology 16:1–10Google Scholar
  47. Marx FG, Uhen MD (2010) Climate, critters, and cetaceans: Cenozoic drivers of the evolution of modern whales. Science 327(5968):993–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGhee GR (1999) Theoretical morphology: the concept and its applications. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Miller AI, Foote M (1996) Calibrating the Ordovician radiation of marine life: implications for Phanerozoic diversity trends. Paleobiology 22:304–309Google Scholar
  50. Mou D, Stoermer EF (1992) Separating Tabellaria (Bacillariophyceae) shape groups: a large sample approach based on Fourier descriptor analysis. J Phycol 2:386–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Niklas KJ (1999) Evolutionary walks through a land plant morphospace. J Exp Bot 50(330):39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Olshtynskaya AP (1990) Morphology of the diatom genus Pseudopodosira. In Proceedings of the 10th International Diatom Symposium, Joensuu, Finland, August 28-September 2, 1988, 93–101. Simola H (ed). Koeltz Scientific BooksGoogle Scholar
  53. Olshtynskaya AP (2002) Morphological and taxonomic characteristics of some Paleogene diatoms of Ukraine. Int J Algae 4:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pagani M, Zacho JC, Freeman KH, Tipple B, Bohaty S (2005) Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309(5734):600–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pappas JL (2005) Theoretical morphospace and its relation to freshwater Gomphonemoid–Cymbelloid diatom (Bacillariophyta) lineages. J Biol Systems 13(4):385–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Proctor R (2006) Architecture from the cell-soul: René Binet and Ernst Haeckel. J Arch 11(4):407–424Google Scholar
  57. Quental TB, Marshall CR (2010) Diversity dynamics: molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol Evol 25(8):434–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rabosky DL, Sorhannus U (2009) Diversity dynamics of marine planktonic diatoms across the Cenozoic. Nature 457:183–186Google Scholar
  59. Raup DM (1966) Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. J Paleontol 40(5):1178–1190Google Scholar
  60. Rohlf FJ, Bookstein FL (eds) (1990) Proceedings of the Michigan morphometrics workshop. The Univ. of Mich. Mus. of Zoology Spec. Pub. 2Google Scholar
  61. Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG (1990) The diatoms: biology & morphology of the genera. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  62. Sims PA (1986) Sphynctolethus Hanna, Ailuretta gen. nov., and evolutionary trends within the Hemiauloideae. Diatom Res 1:241–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sims PA (1988) The fossil genus Trochosira, its morphology, taxonomy and systematics. Diatom Res 3(2):245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sims PA (1990) The fossil diatom genus Fenestrella, its morphology, systematics and palaeogeography. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 100:277–288.Google Scholar
  65. Spencer-Cervato C (1999) The Cenozoic deep sea microfossil record: explorations of the DSDP/ODP sample set using the Neptune database. Palaeontologia Electronica 2Google Scholar
  66. Steeman, ME, Hebsgaard MB, Fordyce RE et al (2009) Radiation of extant Cetaceans driven by restructuring of the oceans. Syst Biol 58:573–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stoermer EF, Ladewski TB (1982) Quantitative analysis of shape variation in type and modern populations of Gomphoneis herculeana. Nova Hedwigia Beih 73:347–386Google Scholar
  68. Wills MA (2001) Morphological disparity: a primer. In: Adrain JM, Edgecombe GD, Lieberman BS (eds) Fossils, phylogeny, and form: an analytical approach. Kluwer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Wills MA, Briggs DEG, Fortey RA (1994) Disparity as an evolutionary index: a comparison of Cambrian and recent arthropods. Paleobiology 20(2):93–130Google Scholar
  70. Wright S (1932) The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proc Sixth Int Congr Genet 1:356–366Google Scholar
  71. Zielinski U, Gersonde R (1997) Diatom distribution in Southern Ocean surface sediments (Atlantic sector): implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 129:213–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations