Intravital Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy in Neuroscience: General Concepts and Applications



Multiphoton excitation microscopy has revolutionized biomedical research during the last two decades by enabling high resolution fluorescent microscopy in intact tissues. This feature makes two-photon excitation (2PE) microscopy ideal for intravital imaging of neural tissue, permitting the observation of structural and functional neuronal dynamics in undisrupted neural circuits. Here we review the fundamental concepts of intravital 2PE microscopy, describe methods and techniques associated with it, and highlight the most significant findings reported on neuron and glia structure dynamics as well as on neuronal activity using this in vivo imaging technique.


Chronic in vivo imaging Calcium imaging Dendritic spine Axonal bouton Fluorophore GECI Cranial window Thinned-skull Pyramidal neuron Glia Deep tissue imaging Optogenetics 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of GeneticsSalk Institute for Biological StudiesLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyTulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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