Advertisement

Medical and Veterinary Impact of the Urticating Processionary Larvae

  • Ignacio Moneo
  • Andrea Battisti
  • Barbara Dufour
  • José Carlos García-Ortiz
  • Miguel González-Muñoz
  • François Moutou
  • Paolo Paolucci
  • Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo
  • Julie Rivière
  • Ana-Isabel Rodríguez-Mahillo
  • Alain Roques
  • Lionel Roques
  • Jose María Vega
  • Jesús Vega
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents recent findings on the impact of processionary moths on human and animal health. The data obtained demonstrate that setae can be dispersed kms away from their origin, a fact that explains why some sensitized subjects experience symptoms without a direct contact with larvae.

The presence of allergens present in setae, the immune response to these allergens and the epidemiological aspects of the impact on humans and animals are described.

A software (URTIRISK) has been developed that allows to observe the evolution of the allergic risk associated with the presence of pine processionary moth, through-out the French territory.

Keywords

Positive Skin Prick Test Infested Tree Seta Extract Contact Urticaria Malignant Catarrhal Fever 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Artola-Bordás, F., Arnedo-Pena, A., Romeu-García, M.A., & Bellido-Blasco, J.B. (2008). Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in schoolchildren. Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra, 31(3), 289–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auger-Rozenberg, M.A., Barbaro, L., Batttisti, A., Blache, S., Charbonnier, Y., Denux, O., Garcia, J., Goussard, F., Imbert, C.E., Kerdelhué, C., Roques, A., Torres-Leguizamon, M., & Vetillard, F., (2014). Ecological responses of parasitoids, predators and associated insect communities to the climate-driven expansion of pine processionary moth. In A. Roques (Ed.), Processionary moths and climate change: An update. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Battisti, A., Holm, G., Fagrell, B., & Larsson, S. (2011). Urticating hairs in arthropods: Their nature and medical significance. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 203–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergia, F., & Keck, G. (1991). Quelques cas d’ingestion de chenilles processionnaires. L’action vétérinaire, 1182, 20.Google Scholar
  5. Blanchard, G. (1994). Erucisme chez le chien. A propos de 6 observations cliniques dans le Sud-Est de la France. Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire, 170(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  6. Bogaerts-Rosbergen, H. M., & van Wijk, M. P. (2010). Two doctors with itchy bumps. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 154, A2487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bosma, A. H., & Jans, H. W. (1998). A severe anaphylactic shock caused by spraying the Oak Processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea) in North Brabant. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 142, 1567–1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Braque, R. (1999). Un cas d’envenimation par les processionnaires du chêne. La semaine Vétérinaire, 920, 27.Google Scholar
  9. Bruchim, Y., Ranen, E., Saragusty, J., & Aroch, I. (2005). Severe tongue necrosis associated with pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni) ingestion in three dogs. Toxicon, 45, 443–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cawdell-Smith, A. J., Todhunter, K. H., Perkins, N. R., & Bryden, W. L. (2009). Stage of pregnancy and foetal loss following exposure of mares to processionary caterpillars. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 29(5), 339–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charmot, P. (1987). La chenille processionnaire du pin, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, et son importance médicale. Thèse de médecine vétérinaire, Lyon, 132 p.Google Scholar
  12. Chuzel, T. (2004). Cas cliniques. Nécrose de la langue chez un chien. Le Point Vétérinaire, 35(243), 79–80.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke, J. A. L., Roth, V. D., & Miller, F. H. (1972). The urticating hairs of theraphosid spiders. American Museum Novitates, 2498, 1–43.Google Scholar
  14. Cuevas, P., Angulo, J., & Giménez-Gallego, G. (2011). Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar. BMJ Case Reports, 3. pii: bcr0620114351. doi:  10.1136/bcr.06.2011.4351
  15. Darrasse, G. (1991). La chenille processionnaire du pin. Contribution épidémiologique et clinique. Thèse Médecine.Vétérinaire, Toulouse, 101, 49 p.Google Scholar
  16. de Réaumur, R. A. F. (1736). Mémoires pour servir à l’étude des insectes. Tome 2: Suite de l’Histoire des Chenilles et des Papillons et l’Histoire des Insectes ennemis des Chenilles. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 514 p.Google Scholar
  17. Démolin, G. (1963). Les ‘miroirs’ urticants de la processionnaire du pin (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.). Revue de Zoologie Agricole et Appliquée, 10–12, 107–114.Google Scholar
  18. Démolin, G. (1988). Intensification de la protection phytosanitaire des forêts. Algérie 1986–1987. La processionnaire du cèdre: Thaumetopoea bonjeani. FAO, Rapport scientifique et rapport iconographique, Roma, Italy, 21 p.Google Scholar
  19. Demory, C. (2004a). Diagnostic de l’envenimation par les chenilles. Le Point Vétérinaire, 35(247), 30–34.Google Scholar
  20. Demory, C. (2004b). Traiter les envenimations par les chenilles. Le Point Vétérinaire, 35(247), 40–44.Google Scholar
  21. Ducombs, G., Lamy, M., Bergaud, J. J., Tamisier, J. M., Gervais, C., & Texier, L. (1979). La chenille procesionnaire (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, Lepidoptéres) et l’homme. Etude morphologique de l’appareil urticant. Enquete épidémiologique. Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie, 106, 769–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ducombs, G., Lamy, M., Mollard, S., Guillard, J. M., & Maleville, J. (1981). Contact dermatitis from processional pine caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). Contact Dermatitis, 7, 287–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. EFSA. (2009). Scientific opinion of the Panel on Plant Health on a pest risk analysis on Thaumetopoea processionea L., the Oak Processionary moth, prepared by the UK and extension of its scope to the EU territory. The EFSA Journal, 1195, 1–64.Google Scholar
  24. Fabre, J. H. (1899). Souvenirs Entomologiques, Études sur L’instinct et Les Moeurs des Insectes (Vol. 6, p. 257, 420p.). Paris: Delagrave.Google Scholar
  25. Fagrell, B., Jörneskog, G., Salomonnson, A. C., Larsson, S., & Holm, G. (2008). Skin reactions induced by experimental exposure to setae from larvae of the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora). Contact Dermatitis, 59, 290–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenk, L., Vogel, B., & Horvath, H. (2007). Dispersion of the bio-aerosol produced by the Oak Processionary moth. Aerobiologia, 23, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Floater, G. J. (1998). Tuft scales and egg protection in Ochrogaster lunifer Herrich-Schaeffer (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 37, 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuentes, A. V., Zapatero, R. L., Martínez Molero, M. I., Alonso, L. E., Beitia Mazuecos, J. M., & Bartolomé, Z. B. (2006). Allergy to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in children. Allergologia et Immunopathologia, 34, 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. García-Ortiz, J. C., Vega, J. M., Sánchez, P., Sanchís, M. E., Vega, J., Ruiz, C., Rodriguez-Mahillo, A. I., Moneo, I., Battisti, A., & Roques, A. (2010). Biological standardization of a pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) skin test extract. In Abstracts of the XXIX EAACI Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 5–9 June 2010, London, UK (p. 960).Google Scholar
  30. Gilmer, P. M. (1925). A comparative study of the poison apparatus of certain lepidopterous larvae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 18, 203–239.Google Scholar
  31. Gleyze, D. (1995). Envenimation des carnivores domestiques par les vipères, les chenilles processionnaires et les batraciens. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire Lyon, 029, 105 p.Google Scholar
  32. Gottschling, S., & Meyer, S. (2006). An epidemic airborne disease caused by the Oak Processionary caterpillar. Pediatric Dermatology, 23, 64–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gottschling, S., Meyer, S., Dill-Mueller, D., Wurm, D., & Gortner, L. (2007). Outbreak report of airborne caterpillar dermatitis in a kindergarten. Dermatology, 215(1), 5–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gourreau, J. M. (2002). La fièvre aphteuse chez les ovins et chez les caprins. Le Point Vétérinaire, 33 (n°spécial), 66–69.Google Scholar
  35. Gourreau, J. M., Cornelis, M., Bourgeois, A., Picard, P., & Laigle, J. (2002). Allergie aux poils de chenille processionnaire du pin chez des moutons. Bulletin des Groupements Techniques Vétérinaires, 14, 93–95.Google Scholar
  36. Groenen, F., & Meurisse, N. (2012). Historical distribution of the Oak Processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea in Europe suggests recolonization instead of expansion. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 14, 147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hase, A. (1939). Über den Pinienprozessionsspinner und über die Gefährlichkeit seiner Raupenhaare (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, 15, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hesler, L. S., Logan, T. M., Benenson, M. W., & Moser, C. (1999). Acute dermatitis from Oak Processionary caterpillars in a U.S. military community in Germany. Journal of Military Medicine, 164(11), 767–770.Google Scholar
  39. Holm, G., Sjöberg, J., Ekstrand, C., Björkholm, M., Granath, F., Ekbom, A., & Larsson, S. (2009). Tallprocessionsspinnare – stort hälsoproblem på södra Gotland. Resultat av en enkätstudi. Läkartidningen, 106(20), 1891–1894.Google Scholar
  40. Hossler, E. W. (2009). Caterpillars and moths. Dermatology and Therapy, 22, 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huchon, H., & Démolin, G. (1970). La bioécologie de la processionnaire du pin. Dispersion potentielle – Dispersion actuelle. Revue Forestière Française (N° spécial “La lutte biologique en forêt”), 220–234.Google Scholar
  42. Inal, A., Altintaş, D. U., Güvenmez, H. K., Yilmaz, M., & Kendirli, S. G. (2006). Life-threatening facial edema due to pine caterpillar mimicking an allergic event. Allergologia et immunopathologia (Madrid), 34, 171–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johansson, S. G., Hourihane, J. O., Bousquet, J., Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C., Dreborg, S., Haahtela, T., Kowalski, M. L., Mygind, N., Ring, J., Van Cauwenberge, P., Van Hage-Hamsten, M., & Wüthrich, B. (2001). EAACI (the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) nomenclature task force. A revised nomenclature for allergy. An EAACI position statement from the EAACI nomenclature task force. Allergy, 56(9), 813–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kawamoto, F., & Kumada, N. (1984). Biology and venoms of Lepidoptera. In A. T. Tu (Ed.), Handbook of natural toxins: Vol. 2. Insect poisons, allergens, and other invertebrate venoms (pp. 291–330). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  45. Kemper, H. (1955). Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die durch Afterwolle von Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera) erzeugte Dermatitis, vergleichen mit der Wirkung von Arthropodenstichen. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Zoologie, 55, 37–59.Google Scholar
  46. Kozer, E., Lahat, E., & Berkovitch, M. (1999). Hypertension and abdominal pain, uncommon presentation after exposure to a pine caterpillar. Toxicon, 37, 1797–1801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lamy, M. (1990). Contact dermatitis (erucism) produced by processionary caterpillars (genus Thaumetopoea). Journal of Applied Entomology, 110, 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lamy, M., Ducombs, G., Pastureaud, M. H., & Vincendeau, P. (1982). Productions tégumentaires de la processionnaire du pin (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.) (Lépidoptères). Appareil urticant et appareil de ponte. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 107, 515–529.Google Scholar
  49. Lamy, M., Vincendeau, P., Ducombs, G., & Pastureaud, M. H. (1983). Irritating substance extracted from the Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff caterpillar mechanism of action. Experientia, 39, 299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lamy, M., Pastureaud, M. H., Novak, F., & Ducombs, G. (1984). Papillons urticants d’Afrique et d’Amérique du Sud (genus Anaphae et genus Hylesia): contribution du microscope électronique à balayage à l’étude de leur appareil urticant et à leur mode d’action. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 109, 163–177.Google Scholar
  51. Lamy, M., Pastureaud, M. H., & Ducombs, G. (1985). Thaumetopoein, an urticating protein of the processionary hairs of the caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences. Série III, Sciences de la vie, 301, 173–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lamy, M., Novak, F., Duboscq, M. F., Ducombs, G., & Maleville, J. (1988). The oak Processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea L) and man – Urticating apparatus and mechanism of action. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, 115, 1023–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Licht, I. F., & Jonker, G. J. (1998). Serious anaphylactic reaction related to the fight against the Oak Processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea) in Noord-Brabant. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 142(45), 2488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Maier, H., Spiegel, W., Kinaciyan, T., Krehan, H., Cabaj, A., Schopf, A., & Hönigsmann, H. (2003). The Oak Processionary caterpillar as the cause of an epidemic airborne disease, survey and analysis. British Journal of Dermatology, 149, 990–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maronna, A., Stache, H., & Sticherling, M. (2008). Lepidopterism – Oak Processionary caterpillar dermatitis, appearance after indirect out-of-season contact. Journal Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 6(9), 747–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McDowell, K. J., Webb, B. A., Williams, N. M., Donahue, J. M., Newman, K. E., Lindemann, M. D., & Horohov, D. W. (2010). Invited review, the role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome, a model for environmental causes of abortion. Journal of Animal Science, 88(4), 1379–1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moneo, I., Vega, J. M., Caballero, M. L., Vega, J., & Alday, E. (2003). Isolation and characterization of Tha p 1, a major allergen from the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Allergy, 58, 34–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mullen, G. R. (2009). Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera). In G. R. Mullen & L. A. Durden (Eds.), Medical and veterinary entomology (pp. 353–370). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  59. Novak, F., Pelisson, V., & Lamy, M. (1987). Comparative morphological, anatomical and biochemical studies of the urticating apparatus and urticating hairs of some Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., Th. processionea L. (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae) and Hylesia metabus Cramer (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 88, 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pesce, H., & Delgado, Q. A. (1971). Poisoning from adult moths and caterpillars. In W. Bürchel & E. E. Buckley (Eds.), Venomous animals and their venoms, Vol. III (pp. 119–156). New York: Venomous Invertebrates Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Petrucco Toffolo, E., Zovi, D., Perin, C., Paolucci, P., Roques, A., Battisti, A., & Horvath, H. (2014). Size and dispersion of urticating setae in three species of processionary moths. Integrative Zoology. doi: 10.1111/1749-4877.12031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Picimbon, J. F., Dietrich, K., Angeli, S., Scaloni, A., Krieger, J., Breer, H., & Pelosi, P. (2000). Purification and molecular cloning of chemosensory proteins from Bombyx mori. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 44, 120–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pineau, X. (1999). Approche épidémiologique des intoxications des chiens et chats. Etude de 40 000 dossiers enregistrés au Centre National d’Informations Toxicologiques Vétérinaires de Lyon de 1991 à 1997. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Lyon, N°076, 192 p.Google Scholar
  64. Pineau, X., & Romanoff, C. (1995). Envenimations des carnivores domestiques. Recueil de medecine veterinaire, 171(2/3), 183–192.Google Scholar
  65. Poisson, L., Boutet, J. P., Paillassou, P., & Fuhrer, L. (1994). Quatre cas d’envenimation par les chenilles processionnaires du pin chez le chien. Le Point Vétérinaire, 25(158), 85–95.Google Scholar
  66. Portero, A., Carreño, E., Galarreta, D., & Herreras, J. M. (2013). Corneal inflammation from pine processionary caterpillar hairs. Cornea, 32(2), 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rebollo, S., Moneo, I., Vega, J. M., & Caballero, M. L. (2002). Pine processionary caterpillar allergenicity increases during larval development. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 128, 310–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rivière, J. (2011). Les chenilles processionnaires du pin, évaluation des enjeux de santé animale. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Maison-Alfort, N°023, 206 p.Google Scholar
  69. Rivière, J., Moutou, F., & Dufour, B. (2011). La chenille processionnaire du pin, une nuisance sanitaire de plus en plus préoccupante. Bulletin des GTV, 58, 87–96.Google Scholar
  70. Robinet, C., Baier, P., Pennerstorfer, J., Schopf, A., & Roques, A. (2007). Modelling the effects of climate change on the potential feeding activity of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) (Lep., Notodontidae) in France. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 460–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rodríguez-Mahillo, A. I., González-Muñoz, M., Vega, J. M., López, J. A., Yart, A., Kerdelhué, C., Camafeita, E., García Ortiz, J. C., Vogel, H., Toffolo, E. P., Zovi, D., Battisti, A., Roques, A., & Moneo, I. (2012). Setae from the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) contain several relevant allergens. Contact Dermatitis, 67, 367–374.Google Scholar
  72. Ruiz, C. (2011). Alergia a la polilla Thaumetopoea pityocampa en la población adulta de una zona endemica. Doctoral thesis, Departamento de Pediatría e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain, 126 p.Google Scholar
  73. Scheidter, F. (1934). Auftreten der “Gifthaare” bei den Prozession-spinnerraupen in den einzelnen Stadien. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 44, 223–226.Google Scholar
  74. Scheiner, P. (2003). Les chenilles processionnaires chez le chien. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Lyon, N°136, 122 p.Google Scholar
  75. Shkalim, V., Herscovici, Z., Amir, J., & Levy, Y. (2008). Systemic allergic reaction to tree processionary caterpillar in children. Pediatric Emergency Care, 24(4), 233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Specht, A., Corseuil, E., & Barreto Abella, H. (2008). Lepidopteros de importancia medica. Principais especies no Rio Grande do Sul. Pelotas: USEB, 220p.Google Scholar
  77. Stewart, J. (2009). Caterpillar caused abortion. Stewart Veterinary Services- Hoofbeats [online]. Retrieved January 16, 2011, from http://www.drjenniferstewart.com/editorials_15_1457564912.pdf, 5 p.
  78. Tobin, T., Harkins, J. D., Roberts, J. F., VanMeter, P. W., & Fuller, T. A. (2004). The Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome and the Eastern Tent Caterpillar II, a toxicokinetic/clinical evaluation and a proposed pathogenesis, septic penetrating setae. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 2(2), 142–158.Google Scholar
  79. Turpin, M. (2006). Les chenilles urticantes, effets pathogènes chez l’homme et chez l’animal et données actuelles sur les venins et les moyens de lutte. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire., Nantes, N°097, 182 p.Google Scholar
  80. Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., Armentia, A., López-Rico, R., Curiel, G., Bartolomé, B., & Fernández, A. (1997). Anaphylaxis to a pine caterpillar. Allergy, 52, 1244–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., Armentia, A., Fernández, A., Vega, J., De la Fuente, R., Sánchez, P., & Sanchís, M. E. (1999). Allergy to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa). Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 29, 1418–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., Armentia, A., Vega, J., De la Fuente, R., & Fernández, A. (2000). Pine processionary caterpillar as a new cause of immunologic contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis, 43, 129–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vega, J. M., Vega, J., Vega, M. L., Moneo, I., Armentia, A., & Sánchez, B. (2003a). Skin reactions to pine processionary caterpillar. Allergy, 58, 87–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vega, M. L., Vega, J., Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., Sánchez, E., & Miranda, A. (2003b). Cutaneous reactions to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in pediatric population. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 14, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vega, J., Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., Armentia, A., Caballero, M. L., & Miranda, A. (2004). Occupational immunologic contact urticaria from pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), experience in 30 cases. Contact Dermatitis, 50, 60–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vega, J., Vega, J. M., & Moneo, I. (2011a). Manifestaciones cutáneas originadas por la oruga procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa). Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas, 102(9), 658–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vega, J. M., Moneo, I., García-Ortiz, J. C., Sánchez-Palla, P. S., Sanchís, M. E., Vega, J., Gonzalez-Muñoz, M., Battisti, A., & Roques, A. (2011b). Prevalence of cutaneous reactions to the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in an adult population. Contact Dermatitis, 64(4), 220–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Watson, P. G., & Sevel, D. (1966). Ophthalmia nodosa. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 50, 209–217.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Werno, J., & Lamy, M. (1990). Animal atmospheric pollution, The urticating hairs of the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.) (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris Série III, 310, 325–331.Google Scholar
  90. Werno, J., Lamy, M., & Vincendeau, P. (1993). Caterpillar hairs as allergens. Lancet, 342, 936–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Éditions Quæ 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ignacio Moneo
    • 1
  • Andrea Battisti
    • 2
  • Barbara Dufour
    • 3
  • José Carlos García-Ortiz
    • 4
  • Miguel González-Muñoz
    • 1
  • François Moutou
    • 5
  • Paolo Paolucci
    • 2
  • Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo
    • 2
  • Julie Rivière
    • 3
  • Ana-Isabel Rodríguez-Mahillo
    • 1
  • Alain Roques
    • 6
  • Lionel Roques
    • 7
  • Jose María Vega
    • 4
  • Jesús Vega
    • 8
  1. 1.Immunology DepartmentHospital Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department DAFNAE-EntomologyUniversity of PaduaLegnaroItaly
  3. 3.Research unit EpiMAI USC ANSES (Epidemiology of Animal Infectious Diseases)Alfort National Veterinary SchoolMaisons-AlfortFrance
  4. 4.Allergy SectionHospital Universitario Río HortegaValladolidSpain
  5. 5.French Agency for Food, Unit EpiEnvironmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES)Maisons-AlfortFrance
  6. 6.INRA, UR0633 URZF (Unité de Recherche Zoologie Forestière)OrléansFrance
  7. 7.INRA, UR 546 Biostatistique et Processus SpatiauxAvignonFrance
  8. 8.Department of DermatologyHospital Universitario Río HortegaValladolidSpain

Personalised recommendations