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The Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Lampreys

Part of the Fish & Fisheries Series book series (FIFI,volume 37)

Abstract

The lampreys (Petromyzontiformes), one of the two surviving groups of agnathan (jawless) vertebrates, currently consist of 41 recognized species. This group has an antitropical distribution, with the 37 species of Northern Hemisphere lampreys assigned to the Petromyzontidae, whereas the four species of Southern Hemisphere lampreys are separated into either the Geotriidae (one species) or Mordaciidae (three species). All lamprey species have a blind and microphagous, burrowing larva (ammocoete), which spends a number of years in the soft sediment of creeks and rivers, after which it undergoes a radical metamorphosis. Eighteen lamprey species then embark on an adult parasitic phase (nine at sea and nine in fresh water) during which they increase markedly in size, whereas the other 23 species do not feed as adults and remain in fresh water. On the basis of morphology, 17 of the 23 non-parasitic species each evolved from a particular parasitic species whose descendants are still represented in the contemporary fauna. The remaining six non-parasitic species, the so-called “southern relict” species, have no obvious potential ancestral parasitic species, implying they have diverged markedly from their parasitic ancestor or that the parasitic ancestor is now extinct. Many of the main taxonomic characteristics reside in features that are associated with parasitic feeding, for example, the type and arrangement of the teeth on the suctorial disc and tongue-like piston. The phylogenetic relationships, derived by maximum parsimony analyses of morphological and anatomical data for the 18 parasitic species, were similar in most respects to those obtained by subjecting molecular data (cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequence data) for those species to Bayesian analyses. However, in contrast to the results of morphological analyses, the genera Eudontomyzon and Lampetra were not monophyletic when using molecular analyses. When non-parasitic species were included in the molecular analyses, some of the six relict non-parasitic species formed clades with parasitic species which, from their morphology, had been allocated by taxonomists to different genera. More genes, and particularly nuclear genes, should be used to help resolve the basis for these differences between the morphological and molecular phylogenies.

Keywords

  • Evolution
  • Geotriidae
  • Mordaciidae
  • Morphological and molecular analyses
  • Paired species
  • Petromyzontidae

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Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Dr Halina Kobryn for generating the maps of the distribution of lampreys, Dr David Bird for kindly supplying Figs. 2.2b–d and Dr James Tweedley for helping to prepare the figures.

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Appendix 2.1 List of Lamprey Families, Genera and Species and Their Authorities

Appendix 2.1 List of Lamprey Families, Genera and Species and Their Authorities

Mordaciidae Gill 1893
Mordacia Gray 1851
Mordacia mordax (Richardson 1846)
Mordacia praecox Potter 1968
Mordacia lapicida (Gray 1851)
Geotriidae Jordan 1923
Geotria Gray 1851
Geotria australis Gray 1851
Petromyzontidae Bonaparte 1832
Caspiomyzon Berg 1906
Caspiomyzon wagneri (Kessler 1870)
Petromyzon Linnaeus 1758
Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus 1758
Ichthyomyzon Girard 1858
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis Hubbs and Trautman 1937
Ichthyomyzon fossor Reighard and Cummins 1916
Ichthyomyzon castaneus Girard 1858
Ichthyomyzon gagei Hubbs and Trautman 1937
Ichthyomyzon bdellium (Jordan 1885)
Ichthyomyzon greeleyi Hubbs and Trautman 1937
Tetrapleurodon Creaser and Hubbs 1922
Tetrapleurodon spadiceus (Bean 1887)
Tetrapleurodon geminis Álvarez del Villar 1966
Entosphenus Gill 1862
Entosphenus tridentatus (Gairdner in Richardson 1836)
Entosphenus minimus (Bond and Kan 1973)
Entosphenus similis Vladykov and Kott 1979c
Entosphenus macrostomus (Beamish 1982)
Entosphenus folletti Vladykov and Kott 1976b
Entosphenus lethophagus (Hubbs 1971)
Lethenteron Creaser and Hubbs 1922
Lethenteron camtschaticum (Tilesius 1811)
Lethenteron alaskense Vladykov and Kott 1978
Lethenteron appendix (DeKay 1842)
Lethenteron reissneri (Dybowski 1869)
Lethenteron kessleri (Anikin 1905)
Lethenteron ninae Naseka et al. 2009
Eudontomyzon Regan 1911
Eudontomyzon danfordi Regan 1911
Eudontomyzon mariae (Berg 1931)
Eudontomyzon stankokaramani Karaman 1974
Eudontomyzon morii (Berg 1931)
Eudontomyzon hellenicus Vladykov et al. 1982
Eudontomyzon graecus Renaud and Economidis 2010
Lampetra Bonnaterre 1788
Lampetra ayresii (Günther 1870)
Lampetra pacifica Vladykov 1973
Lampetra richardsoni Vladykov and Follett 1965
Lampetra hubbsi (Vladykov and Kott 1976c)
Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott 1860)
Lampetra fluviatilis (Linnaeus 1758)
Lampetra planeri (Bloch 1784)
Lampetra lanceolata Kux and Steiner 1972
Lampetra zanandreai Vladykov 1955

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Potter, I., Gill, H., Renaud, C., Haoucher, D. (2015). The Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Lampreys. In: Docker, M. (eds) Lampreys: Biology, Conservation and Control. Fish & Fisheries Series, vol 37. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9306-3_2

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