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Introduction

  • P. Vidhyasekaran
Chapter
Part of the Signaling and Communication in Plants book series (SIGCOMM, volume 2)

Abstract

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates (JA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (AUX), cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and brassinosteroid (BR) play an important role in intercellular and systemic signaling systems triggering expression of various defense-responsive genes. The SA–JA–ET signaling systems are considered as the backbone of the plant immune signaling system, while ABA, auxin, cytokinin, GA, and BR are involved in modulating plant immune responses by regulating host defense responses triggered by the SA–JA–ET signaling systems. SA signaling is required for the manifestation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Methyl salicylate, dehydroabietinal, pipecolic acid, azelaic acid, a lipid transfer protein (DIR1), a lipid-derived molecule (glycerol 3-phosphate), and a glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent factor have been reported as mobile signaling components in SA-induced SAR. Mediators MED16 and MED15 are involved in triggering SA-mediated SAR. SAR is associated with priming of defense responses, and the priming results in a faster and stronger induction of defense responses after pathogen attack. Histone modifications are systemically set during a priming event. The priming can be inherited epigenetically, and descendants of primed plants exhibit next-generation systemic acquired resistance. DNA methylation plays an important role in the transgenerational SAR. JA signaling triggers systemic immunity called “induced systemic resistance (ISR).” JA-Ile may be the mobile signal involved in the induction of ISR. The ISR involves priming of JA-dependent responses. MED25, MED16, and MED8 subunits of the Mediator complex interact with several transcription factors known to function in the control of JA-associated gene expression. Ethylene may act as a two-faceted player in the plant immune response network, triggering resistance or susceptibility against different pathogens. ABA signal perception and signal transduction pathway includes PYR/PYL/RCAR (an abscisic acid receptor), type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C, a negative regulator), and SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2, a positive regulator). Auxin binds to TIR1/AFB nuclear receptors, which are F-box subunits of SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The auxin signal is then modulated by the Aux/IAA repressors and the auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factors. Auxin signaling is also involved in triggering SAR. Auxin signaling increases SA levels, which trigger SAR. Cytokinins regulate the host defense responses either positively or negatively depending on the concentrations of cytokinins available at the infection site. Key components in the GA signaling pathway include the GA receptor GID1, the DELLA proteins, and the F-box proteins. GA regulates plant immune responses by modulating JA and SA signaling systems. Plant hormones act in concert. Plant hormone signaling pathways are not simple linear and isolated cascades, but can crosstalk with each other. Architecture of plant immune signaling networks may not be static and may vary with the invading pathogen genotype. Crosstalk between different hormone signaling pathways in the signaling network helps the plant to choose the effective defense strategy to follow, depending on the type of pathogen it is encountering. The crosstalk also allows the pathogens to manipulate plants to their own benefit by shutting down the specific hormone signaling pathway involved in triggering defense responses and hijacking the signaling pathway involved in induction of susceptibility.

Keywords

Salicylic Acid Gibberellic Acid Induce Systemic Resistance DELLA Protein Salicylic Acid Signaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Vidhyasekaran
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant PathologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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