8.6 Five Conversations and Three Notes on the “Soviet,” or Finding a Place for Personal History in the Study of Teacher Education Policy in Kazakhstan
This chapter reflects on the analytical, procedural and methodological processes which have contributed to the emergence of the paper ‘The “Soviet” in the memories and teachers’ processional beliefs in Kazakhstan’ (Fimyar and Kurakbayev, under review), a part of a larger study on Internationalisation and School Reform in Kazakhstan (Bridges, 2014). In providing an account of the choices and constraints faced by the authors, the chapter makes explicit the relationships between the researchers’ intellectual biographies, the politics of research and the selection of a particular strategic point for analysis. This contribution argues for a more encompassing view of research data, which in this case includes literature on Soviet education, interview data and, of equal importance, the authors’ experiences of Soviet schooling. The key benefit of analysing teachers’ beliefs through the double lens of policy sociology and auto-ethnography is the ability to capture how change and continuity coexist in the complex present, and how memory is used strategically to legitimise new approaches to teaching and learning. The additional benefit of the approach is the possibility to produce dialogic, multi-layered interpretative narratives which talk to various actors in the field of education policy, comparative and international education and educational consultancy.
KeywordsSoviet Time International Crisis Group Education Debate Research Interviewee Good International Practice
- Aydarova, O. (2013). Glories of the past or dim visions of the future: Teacher education programs as the site of historical becoming. Paper presented at the 21st annual symposium of the Soyuz research network for postsocialist cultural studies ‘Authoritarianism and Beyond?: Lessons from postsocialist societies’. March 22–13, Columbia University.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (M. Holquist & C. Emerson, Trans). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Barlett, P. (2012). Kazakhstan: Elite schools may limit opportunities. Eurasia.net. Available at: www.eurasianet.org/node/65035 [in English, retrieved 16 December 2013].
- Borytko, N. M. (2005). Values and education: Russian perspective, edited collection of the institute of pedagogy and in-service training, Volgograd state pedagogical University. Retrieved from: www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0579-6431/2005/0579-64310502035B.pdf [in English, retrieved 16 December 2013].
- Bridges, D. (Ed.). (2014). Educational Reform and Internatioanlisation: The case of school reform in Kazakhstan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Y. C. (2008). New learning and school leadership: Paradigm shift towards the third wave. In J. MacBeath & Y. C. Cheng (Eds.), Leadership for learning: International perspectives. Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
- Coffey, A. J. (2002). Ethnography and self: Reflections and representations. In T. May (Ed.), Qualitative research in action. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ellis, C. (1997). Evocative autoethnography: Writing emotionally about our lives. In W. G. Tierney & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Representation and the text: Re-framing the narrative voice. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Ellis, C. (2004). The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira.Google Scholar
- Fimyar, O. (2008a). Using governmentality as a conceptual tool in education policy research. Educate: The Journal of Doctoral Research in Education (Kaleidoscope Special Issue March 2008), 8, 3–18.Google Scholar
- Fimyar, O. (2010). Policy why(s): Policy rationalities and the changing logic of educational reform in post-communist Ukraine (1991–2008). In I. Silova (Ed.), Post-socialism is not dead: (Re) reading the global in comparative education. International Perspectives on Education and Society (Vol. 14, pp. 61–91). Bingley: Emerald Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fimyar, O. (2014a). Translating pedagogical ‘excellence’ in three languages or how Kazakhstani teachers ‘change’. In D. Bridges (Ed.), Educational reform and internationalisation: The case of school reform in Kazakhstan (pp. 301–324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Fimyar, O. (2014b). “Soviet”, ‘Kazakh’ and ‘world-class’ in the contemporary construction of educational understanding and practice in Kazakhstan. In D. Bridges (Ed.), Educational reform and internationalisation (pp. 177–198). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Fimyar, O., & Kurakbayev, K. (under review). “Soviet” in the memories and teachers’ professional beliefs in Kazakhstan: Points for reflection for reformers, international consultants and practitioners.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (2000). In J. D. Faubion (Ed.), Power, vol. 3 of The essential works of Foucault 1954–1984. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
- Grant, N. (1964). Soviet education. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Hessman, R. (2011). My Perestroika, documentary, New Video Group, 87 minutes.Google Scholar
- Heyneman, S., & DeYoung, A. J. (Eds.). (2004). Challenges for education in Central Asia. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Hiro, D. (1995). Between Marx and Muhammad: The changing face of Central Asia. London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
- Hiro, D. (2009). Inside Central Asia: A political and cultural history of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, turkey, and Iran. New York: Overlook Duckworth.Google Scholar
- Holt, N. L. (2003). Representation, legitimation, and autoethnography: An autoethnographic writing story. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(1), 18–28.Google Scholar
- International Crisis Group. (2011). Central Asia: Decay and decline. Asia report No. 201– 3 February. Bishkek/Brussels: International Crisis Group. Available at www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/central-asia/201%20Central%20Asia%20-%20Decay%20and%20Decline.pdf [in English, retrieved 16 November 2013].
- Kharkhordin, O. (1999). The collective and the individual in Russia: A study of practices. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Kolesnikova, I. A. (1991). Teoretiko-methodologicheskaya podgotovka uchitelia k vospitatelnoj rabote v tsikle pedagogicheskih disiplin [in Russian] Theoretical and methodological preparation of the teacher for upbringing work across the disciplines. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, St Petersburg State University.Google Scholar
- Kurakbayev, K. (together with Bridges, D., & Kambatyrova, A.). (2014a). Lost – and Found – in Translation? Interpreting the processes of the international and intra-national ‘translation’ of educational policy and practice in Kazakhstan. In D. Bridges (Ed.), Educational Reform and Internationalisation: The case of school reform in Kazakhstan (pp. 263–286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kurakbayev, K. (together with Bridges, D., & Kambatyrova, A.). (2014b). Interpreting the international and intra-national ‘translation’ of educational policy and practice: A case of opportunism, serendipity and bricolage. In P. Smeyers, D. Bridges, N. Burbules, & M. Griffiths (Eds.), International handbook of interpretation in educational research. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- MOES. (2010). State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020, Astana. Available at: www.akorda.kz/upload/SPED.doc [in English, retrieved 15 November 13].
- MOES. (2013). Strategic Directions of Education and Science Development for 2014–2016. Document for internal circulation. Astana.Google Scholar
- Muckle, J. (1988). A guide to the Soviet curriculum: What the Russian child is taught in school. London/New York/Sydney: Groom Helm.Google Scholar
- Niyozov, S. (2011). Revisiting teacher professionalism discourse through teachers’ professional lives in post-Soviet Tajikistan. In I. Silova (Ed.), Globalization on the margins: Education and postsocialist transformations in central Asia. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Niyozov, S., & Shamatov, D. (2010). Teachers surviving to teach: Implications for post-Soviet education and society in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Globalisation, ideology and education policy reforms: Globalization, comparative education and policy research (Vol. 11). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Pavlenko, A. (2003). The privilege of writing as an immigrant woman. In C. Person Casanave & S. Vandrick (Eds.), Writing to scholarly publication: Behind the scenes in language education. Mahwah/London: LEA Publishers.Google Scholar
- Richardson, L. (2000). Writing a method of inquiry. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Robinson, K. (2010a). Changing educational paradigms. TED video. Available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U [retrieved 22 December 2013].
- Robinson, K. (2010b). Bring on the learning revolution. TED video. Available at: www.ted.com/talks/sir_ken_robinson_bring_on_the_revolution.html [retrieved 22 December 2013].
- Shturman, D. (1988). The differentiation of opportunities in Soviet secondary education. In D. Shturman (Ed.), The Soviet secondary school. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Silova, I. (Ed.). (2010). Post-socialism is not dead: (Re)-reading the global in comparative education. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
- Silova, I. (Ed.). (2011). Globalization on the margins: Education and postsocialist transformations in Central Asia. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Silova, I., & Steiner-Khamsi, G. (Eds.). (2008). How NGOs react. Globalization and education reform in the Caucasus, central Asia and Mongolia. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
- Tengri News. (2012). V Kazakhstane pochti 30-kratnaya raznitsa v dohodah bogatyh I bednyh [in Russian] The 30-fold Difference between the Income of the Rich and the Poor in Kazakhstan. Available at: http://tengrinews.kz/private_finance/v-kazahstane-pochti-30-kratnaya-raznitsa-v-dohodah-bogatyih-i-bednyih-213808/ [in Russian, retrieved 15 November 2013].
- White, E., & Peters, M. (Eds.). (2011). Bakhtinian pedagogy: Opportunities and challenges for research, policy and practice in education across the globe. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- WHO/UNICEF. (2013). Progress on sanitation and drinking-water: 2013 update. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/81245/1/9789241505390_eng.pdf [Retrieved 15 November 2013].
- Yurchak, A. (2005). Everything was forever until it was no more: The last Soviet generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar