The Worldwide Spread of Democracy

  • Robert K. SchaefferEmail author
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


Three developments contributed to the spread of democracy during the last 200 years: the rise of constitutional government in the republics; the democratization of the republics; and the expansion of citizenries within the republics. This chapter examines how these developments contributed to global social change and improved citizen wellbeing in the republics. It also analyzes the role that social movements played in advancing, assisting, and resisting change.


Democracy Constitutional government Popular sovereignty Republics Partition Social movements Social change 

References (for Schaeffer)

  1. Amin, M. (2012). After the spring: Economic transitions in the Arab world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, Y. K. (2012). Building a neo-liberal state: Investigating the legacy of the American occupation of Iraq. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association annual meeting in Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  3. Billias, G. S. (2009). American constitutionalism around the world, 1776–1989: A global perspective. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Coll, S. (2011, September 26). Membership Dues. The New Yorker,뭱51–52.Google Scholar
  5. Daniels, R. (1975). The decision to relocate the Japanese Americans. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  6. Daniels, R. (1993). Prisoners without trial: Japanese Americans in world war II. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  7. Davis, F. (1991). Moving the mountain: The women’s movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  8. Doyle, M. W. (2011). The folly of protection: Is intervention against Qaddafi’s regime legal or legitimate?”. In Council of Foreign Relations (Ed.), The new Arab revolt. New York: Council of Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  9. Goldstone, J. A. (2011). Understanding the revolutions of 2011. In Council of Foreign Relations (Ed.), The new Arab revolt. New York: Council of Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  10. Hadiwinata, B. S., & Schuck, C. (2007). Mapping Indonesia’s way toward democracy: In search of a theoretical frame. In B. S. Hadiwinata & C. Schuck (Eds.), Democracy in Indonesia: The challenge of consolidation. Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamid, S. (2011a). Tunisia: Birthplace of the revolution. In The Brookings Institution (Ed.), The Arab awakening: American and the transformation of the Middle-East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hamid, S. (2011b). Egypt: The prize. In The Brookings Institution (Ed.), The Arab awakening: American and the transformation of the Middle-East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  13. Huntington, S. (1991). The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kerber, L. K. (1998). No constitutional right to be ladies: Women and the obligations of citizenship. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  15. Keyssar, A. (2009). The right to vote: The contested history of democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. King, Jr., M. L. (1958, June 27). Non-violence and racial justice. Speech given at the gathering of friends, Cape May, New Jersey (Audio recording).Google Scholar
  17. Leavitt, J. W. (1996). Typhoid Mary: Captive to the public’s health. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  18. Manza, J., & Uggen, C. (2008). Locked out: Felon disenfranchisement and American democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Murray, R. K. (1955). The red scare: A study in national hysteria, 1919–1920. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. Noueihed, L., & Warren, A. (2012). The battle for the Arab spring: Revolution, counter-revolution, and the making of a new era. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Osnos, E. (2012, August 6). The Burmese spring. The New Yorker, 52–61.Google Scholar
  22. Piven, F. F. (2006). Challenging authority: How ordinary people change America. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  23. Pollack, K. M. (2011). Iraq: The roller-coaster of democracy. In The Brookings Institution (Ed.), The Arab awakening: America and the transformation of the Middle-East. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  24. Rosenn, K. S. (1991). The success of constitutionalism in the United States and its failure in Latin America. In K. W. Thompson (Ed.), The U.S. constitution and the constitutions of Latin America. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  25. Safford, F. (1985). Politics, ideology, and society in post-independence Spanish America. In L. Bethell (Ed.), The Cambridge history of Latin America, Vol. III, from independence to c. 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Schaeffer, R. (1990). Warpaths: The politics of partition. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  27. Schaeffer, R. K. (1997). Power to the people: Democratization around the world. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Schaeffer, R. K. (1999a). Severed states: Dilemmas of democracy in a divided world. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  29. Schaeffer, R. K. (1999b). Dilemmas of sovereignty and citizenship in the republican interstate system. In M. Zagar, B. Jesih, & R. Bester (Eds.), The constitutional and political regulation of ethnic relations and conflicts. Ljubljana: Institute for Ethnic Studies.Google Scholar
  30. Schaeffer, R. K. (2009). Understanding globalization: The social consequences of political, economic, and environmental change (4th ed.). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Schaeffer, R. K. (2012). Red Inc: Dictatorship and the development of capitalism in China. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Schaeffer, R. K. (2013). The rising tide: Social movements and global social change since 1800. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  33. Scott, G. R. (1974). The history of corporal punishment: A survey of flagellation in its historical, anthropological and sociological aspects. Detroit: Gale Research.Google Scholar
  34. Sellers, M. N. S. (2003). Republican legal theory: The history, constitution, and purposes of law in a free state. Houndsmill: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith, W. B. (1961). White servitude in colonial South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  36. Stearns, P. N. (1974). The revolutionary tide in Europe. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  37. Steinberg, D. I. (1999). Burma/Myanmar: Under the military. In J. W. Morley (Ed.), Driven by growth: Political change in the Asia pacific region. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  38. Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trager, E. (2011). Letter from Cario: The people’s military in Egypt. In Council of Foreign Relations (Ed.), The new Arab revolt. New York: Council of Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  40. Veenhoven, R. (2012). Cross-national differences in happiness: Cultural measurement bias or effect of culture? International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(4), 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wallerstein, I. (1974). The modern world-system: Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world-economy in the sixteenth century. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  42. Wallerstein, I. (1989). The modern world-system III: Mercantilism and the consolidation of the European world-economy, 1600–1750. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  43. Wallerstein, I. (1996). Historical capitalism and capitalist civilization. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  44. Wood, G. S. (1992). The radicalism of the American revolution. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  45. Zon, M. G. (1972). The youth vote. In G. S. McClellan (Ed.), American youth in a changing culture. New York: H.W. Wilson Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global SociologyCalifornia Polytechnic UniversitySan Luis ObispoUSA

Personalised recommendations