Skip to main content

Satisfaction and Happiness – The Bright Side of Quality of Life

Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)

Abstract

Researchers and policy makers have become increasingly interested in using happiness or subjective wellbeing (SWB) as an index of quality of life. We examine the utility of using SWB as a social indicator, arguing that SWB is intrinsically valuable as a measure of the end goal of all human activities and extrinsically valuable as a predictor of a wide range of positive outcomes and an indicator of the effects of changing societal conditions. Using the examples of wealth and unemployment, we show that changes in objective societal conditions influence individual and national SWB. Because SWB is sensitive to changes in societal conditions, it can be fruitfully used to measure societal progress. Encouraged by strong evidence that societal conditions influence SWB, researchers and policy makers should focus future efforts on identifying and implementing those societal changes that have the greatest potential to enhance happiness.

Keywords

  • Quality of life
  • Subjective wellbeing
  • Life satisfaction
  • Happiness
  • Income
  • Unemployment
  • GDP
  • Policy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-9178-6_39
  • Chapter length: 15 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   389.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-017-9178-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 39.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    See Diener and Tov (2012) for a taxonomy of how these components may be further differentiated by whether they are based on “objective” events and life circumstances, “on-line” reactions and experiences, recall of past reactions and experiences, or overall evaluations of one’s general experiences.

References

  • Aron, A., Norman, C. C., Aron, E. N., McKenna, C., & Heyman, R. E. (2000). Couples’ shared participation in novel and arousing activities and experienced relationship quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 273.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ashton, H., & Stepney, R. (1982). Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology. London: Tavistock Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blakely, T. A., Collings, S. C. D., & Atkinson, J. (2003). Unemployment and suicide: Evidence for a causal association? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 594–600.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blanchflower, D. G., Oswald, A. J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2012). Is psychological well-being linked to the consumption of fruit and vegetables? Social Indicators Research, 114, 785–801. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bockerman, P., & Ilmakunnas, P. (2012). Job satisfaction-production nexus: A study using matched survey and register data. The Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 65, 244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boor, M. (1980). Relationships between unemployment rates and suicide rates in eight countries, 1962–1976. Psychological Reports, 47, 1095–1101.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carver, C. S. (2004). Negative affects deriving from the behavioral approach system. Emotion, 4(1), 3.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2008). Positive psychological well-being and mortality: A quantitative review of prospective observational studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 741–756.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cole, K., Daly, A., & Mak, A. (2009). Good for the soul: The relationship between work, wellbeing and psychological capital. Journal of Socio-Economics, 38, 464–474.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Creed, P. A., & Bartrum, D. A. (2008). Personal control as a mediator and moderator between life strains and psychological well-being in the unemployed. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 460–481.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Creed, P. A., & Klisch, J. (2005). Future outlook and financial strain: Testing the personal agency and latent deprivation models of unemployment and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 251–260.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, M. R. (1988a). Does happiness mean friendliness? Induced mood and heterosexual self-disclosure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 283–297.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, M. R. (1988b). What do you do when you’re happy or blue? Mood, expectancies, and behavioral interest. Motivation and Emotion, 12, 309–330.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Neve, J.-E., & Oswald, A. J. (2012). Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 19953–19958.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deaton, A. (2008). Income, health, and well-being around the world: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22, 53–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R. J., & Oswald, A. J. (2001). Preferences over inflation and unemployment: Evidence from surveys of happiness. American Economic Review, 91, 53–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? A literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research, 57, 119–169.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Chan, M. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 1–43. doi:10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, 1–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Suh, E. (2000). Culture and subjective well-being. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Tay, L. (2014). Review of the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Social Indicators Research, 116, 255–267. doi:10.1007/s11205-013-0279-x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Tov, W. (2012). National accounts of well-being. In K. C. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of social indicators and quality of life research (pp. 137–158). New York: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Sapyta, J. J., & Suh, E. (1998). Subjective well-being is essential to well-being. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 33–37.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Nickerson, C., Lucas, R. E., & Sandvik, E. (2002). Dispositional affect and job outcomes. Social Indicators Research, 59(3), 229–259.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Lucas, R., Schimmack, U., & Helliwell, J. (2009). Well-being for public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Prieto-Kim, C., Choi, D.-W., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Inglehart, R., & Tay, L. (2013a). Theory and validity of life satisfaction scales. Social Indicators Research, 112, 497–527.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2013b). Rising income and subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 267–276.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Durkheim, E. (1951/1897). Suicide. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? In P. A. David & M. W. Reder (Eds.), Nations and households in economic growth (pp. 89–125). New York: Academic.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Easterlin, R. A., McVey, L. A., Switek, M., Sawangfa, O., & Zweig, J. S. (2010). The happiness-income paradox revisited. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 107, 22463–22468.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Economic Debates: GDP. (2010). The economist online. Retrieved October 31, 2012, from www.economist.com/debate/days/view/501

  • Edmans, A. (2011). Does the stock market fully value intangibles? Employee satisfaction and equity prices. Journal of Financial Economics, 101, 621–640.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Edmans, A. (2012). The link between job satisfaction and firm value, with implications for corporate social responsibility. Available at SSRN 2054066.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, J. R., & Cooper, C. L. (1988). The impacts of positive psychological states on physical health: A review and theoretical framework. Social Science and Medicine, 12, 1447–1459.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(5), 804.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., & Mansfield, L. R. (2012). Whistle while you work: A review of the life satisfaction literature. Journal of Management, 38, 1038–1083.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.218.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2002). Happiness and economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Behavioral activation and inhibition in everyday life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1135.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., & Elliot, A. J. (2003). Evidence for bivariate systems: An empirical test of appetition and aversion across domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(5), 349–372.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garatachea, N., Molinero, O., Martınez-Garcıa, R., Jimenez-Jimenez, R., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., & Marquez, S. (2009). Feelings of well being in elderly people: Relationship to physical activity and physical function. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 36, 306–312. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2008.02.010.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garg, N., & Lerner, J. S. (2013). Sadness and consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, 106–113.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garg, N., Wansink, B., & Inman, J. J. (2007). The influence of incidental affect on consumers’ food intake. Journal of Marketing, 71, 194–206.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, A. H., Veum, J. R., & Darity, W. (1996). The psychological impact of unemployment and joblessness. Journal of Socio-Economics, 25, 333–358.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Graham, C., & Pettinato, S. (2001). Happiness, markets, and democracy: Latin America in comparative perspective. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 237–268.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hagerty, M. R., & Veenhoven, R. (2003). Wealth and happiness revisited – Growing national income does go with greater happiness. Social Indicators Research, 64, 1–27.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., Asplund, J. W., Killham, E. A., & Agrawal, S. (2010). Causal impact of employee work perceptions on the bottom line of organizations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 378–389.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Howell, R. T., Kern, M. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). Health benefits: Meta-analytical determining the impact of well-being on objective health outcomes. Health Psychology Review, 1, 83–136.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, H., & Humphreys, B. R. (2012). Sports participation and happiness: Evidence from US microdata. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 776–793.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Job attitudes. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Inglehart, R., & Klingemann, H.-D. (2000). Genes, culture, democracy, and happiness. In E. Diener & E. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 165–183). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C., & Welzel, C. (2008). Development, freedom, and rising happiness: A global perspective (1981–2007). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 264–285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jahoda, M. (1982). Employment and unemployment: A social psychological analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits – Self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability – With job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 80–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 16489–16493.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science, 1776, 1776–1780.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L., & Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 292–314.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., & Glaser, R. (2002). Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: New perspectives from psyhoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 83–107.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, L. A., & Napa, C. K. (1998). What makes a life good? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 156–165.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kubzansky, L. D., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Going to the heart of the matter: Do negative emotions cause coronary heart disease? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48, 323–337.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Land, K. C., Michalos, A. C., & Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Prologue: The development and evolution of research on social indicators and quality of life (QOL). In K. C. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of social indicators and quality of life research (pp. 1–22). New York: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Latif, E. (2010). Crisis, unemployment and psychological wellbeing in Canada. Journal of Policy Modeling, 32, 520–530.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, P. C. (1983). Play as a means for developing relationships. In Primate social relationships (pp. 82–89). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lipscomb, A. A., & Bergh, A. E. (Eds.). (1903–1904). The writings of Thomas Jefferson (Memorial ed., Vol. 16). Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lucas, R. E. (2007). Adaptation and the set-point model of subjective well-being: Does happiness change after major life events? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 75–79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lucas, R. E., & Schimmack, U. (2009). Income and well-being: How big is the gap between the rich and the poor? Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 75–78.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1995). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luhmann, M., & Eid, M. (2009). Does it really feel the same? Changes in life satisfaction following repeated life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 363–381.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lykken, D. (1999). Happiness: What studies on twins show us about nature, nurture, and the happiness set-point. New York: Golden Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005a). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. A., & Diener, E. (2005b). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marks, G. N., & Fleming, N. (1999). Influences and consequences of well-being among Australian young people: 1980–1995. Social Indicators Research, 46(3), 301–323.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McKee-Ryan, F. M., Song, Z., Wanberg, C. R., & Kinicki, A. J. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 53–76.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • O’Leary, A. (1990). Stress, emotion, and human immune function. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 363–382.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ochsen, C. (2011). Subjective well-being and aggregate unemployment: Further evidence. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 58, 634–655.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • OECD. (2011). Average annual working time 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/annual-work-table-2011-1-en. Accessed 1 May 2013.

  • Oishi, S., Schimmack, U., & Diener, E. (2012). Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations. Psychological Science, 23, 86–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pavlova, M. J., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2012). Age, cumulative (dis)advantage, and subjective well-being in employed and unemployed Germans: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 93–104.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pelled, L. H., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Xin, K. R. (1999). Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 1–28. doi:10.2307/2667029.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, S. J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Zhang, Z. (2011). Psychological capital and employee performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64(2), 427–450. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01215.x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pressman, S. D., & Cohen, S. (2005). Does positive affect influence health? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 925–971.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richman, L. S., Kubzansky, L. D., Maselko, J., Kawachi, I., Choo, P., & Bauer, M. (2005). Positive emotion and health: Going beyond the negative. Health Psychology, 24, 422–429.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, B. W., & Jackson, J. J. (2008). Sociogenomic personality psychology. Journal of Personality, 76, 1523–1544.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, G. E. (2004). Beyond nature and nurture. Science, 304, 397–399.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sacks, D. W., Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2012). The new stylized facts about income and subjective well-being. Emotion, 12, 1181–1187.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schimmack, U., & Oishi, S. (2005). The influence of chronically and temporarily accessible information on life satisfaction judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 395–406.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, B. (2012). Move over economists: We need a council of psychological advisers. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/11/move-over-economistswe-need-a-council-of-psychological-advisers/265085

  • Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 5, 410–421.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sheldon, K. M., Abad, N., Ferguson, Y. L., Gunz, A., Houser-Marko, L., Nichols, C. P., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2010). Persistent pursuit of need-satisfying goals leads to increased happiness: A 6-month experimental longitudinal study. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 39–48.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2008). Economic growth and happiness: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 39(Spring), 1–102.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 354–365. doi:10.1037/a0023779.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tay, L., & Harter, J. K. (2013). Economic and labor market forces matter for job satisfaction. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 5, 193–208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tay, L., & Kuykendall, L. (2013). Promoting happiness: Malleability of individual and societal-level happiness. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 159–176.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tay, L., Diener, E., Drasgow, F., & Vermunt, J. K. (2011). Multilevel mixed-measurement IRT analysis: An explication and application to self-reported emotions around the world. Organizational Research Methods, 14, 177–207. doi:10.1177/1094428110372674.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tay, L., Chan, D., & Diener, E. (2014). The metrics of societal happiness. Social Indicators Research, 117, 577–600. doi:10.1007/s11205-013-0356-1.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Terkel, S. (1974). Working: People talk about what they do all day and how they feel about what they do. New York: Pantheon/Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Veenhoven, R., & Vergunst, F. (2013). The easterlin illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vineis, P. (2004). A self-fulfilling prophecy: Are we underestimating the role of environment in gene-environment interaction research? International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 945–946.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Warr, P. B. (2007). Work, happiness, and unhappiness. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule – Expanded form. Ames: The University of Iowa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiest, M., Schuz, B., Webster, N., & Wurm, S. (2011). Subjective well-being and mortality revisited: Differential effects of cognitive and emotional facets of well-being on mortality. Health Psychology, 30, 728–735.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Winkelmann, L., & Winkelmann, R. (1998). Why are they unemployed so unhappy? Evidence from panel data. Economica, 65, 1–15.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xu, J., & Roberts, E. R. (2010). The power of positive emotions: It’s a matter of life or death – Subjective well-being and longevity over 28 years in a general population. Health Psychology, 29, 9–19.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louis Tay .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Tay, L., Kuykendall, L., Diener, E. (2015). Satisfaction and Happiness – The Bright Side of Quality of Life. In: Glatzer, W., Camfield, L., Møller, V., Rojas, M. (eds) Global Handbook of Quality of Life. International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9178-6_39

Download citation