Multi-item Measurement of Subjective Wellbeing: Subjective Approaches (2)

  • Robert A. CumminsEmail author
  • Melissa K. Weinberg
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


This chapter comes in two parts. The first presents a theoretical view of subjective wellbeing (SWB), which sets the parameters and expectations for part two, which contains an evaluation of SWB scales. The theoretical view describes SWB homeostasis, set-points for SWB, and Homeostatically Protected Mood (HPMood). The selection of scales was made on the basis of simplicity. Each scale comprises a list of personally-relevant items with a response mode of ‘satisfaction’. It is predicted that such scales cannot reliably support more than one factor due to shared variance from HPMood. The primary criteria for the evaluation are parsimony and the robust demonstration of factors, if this is part of the scale’s construction. It is found that no scale with this simple construction can reliably support more than one factor, thus confirming theory. Two scales best meet the evaluation criteria as the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Personal Wellbeing Index.


Subjective wellbeing Multi-item scales Life domains Homeostatically protected mood Shared and unique variance Factor analysis 


  1. Adams, D. L. (1969). Analysis of a life satisfaction index. Journal of Gerontology, 24, 470–474.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1974). Developing measures of perceived life quality: Results from several national surveys. Social Indicators Research, 1, 1–26.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: American’s perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arzouman, J. M., Dudas, S., Ferrans, C. E., & Holm, K. (1991). Quality of life of patients with sarcoma postchemotherapy. Oncology Nursing Forum, 18, 889–894.Google Scholar
  5. Aubeeluck, A., & Buchanan, H. (2007). The Huntington’s disease quality of life battery for carers: Reliability and validity. Clinical Genetics, 71, 434–445.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, K. M. (1996). A longitudinal study of wellbeing in widowed women. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 1005–1010.Google Scholar
  7. Best, C. J., Cummins, R. A., & Lo, S. K. (2000). The quality of rural and metropolitan life. Australian Journal of Psychology, 52, 69–74.Google Scholar
  8. Blore, J. D., Stokes, M. A., Mellor, D., Firth, L., & Cummins, R. A. (2011). Comparing multiple discrepancies theory to affective models of subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 100, 1–16. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9599-2.Google Scholar
  9. Boonstra, A. M., Reneman, M. F., Posthumus, J. B., Stewart, R. E., & Preuper, H. R. S. (2008). Reliability of the life satisfaction questionnaire to assess patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 31, 181–184.Google Scholar
  10. Bourland, S. L., Stanley, M. A., Snyder, A. G., Novy, D. M., Beck, J. G., Averill, P. M., & Swann, A. C. (2000). Quality of life in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Aging & Mental Health, 4(315–313), 323.Google Scholar
  11. Bowins, B., & Shugar, G. (1998). Delusions and self-esteem. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 154–158.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, J., Jose, P., Ng, S. H., & Guo, J. S. (2002). Psychometric properties of three scales of depression and well-being in a mature New Zealand sample. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 31, 39–46.Google Scholar
  13. Bruscia, K., Shultis, C., Dennery, K., & Dileo, C. (2008). Predictors of quality of life in hospitalized cardiac patients. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 982–987.Google Scholar
  14. Burckhardt, C. S., & Anderson, K. L. (2003). The Quality of Life Scale (QOLS): Reliability, validity, and utilization. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 60. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-60.Google Scholar
  15. Burckhardt, C. S., Woods, S. L., Schultz, A. A., & Ziebarth, D. M. (1989). Quality of life of adults with chronic illness: A psychometric study. Research in Nursing and Health, 6, 347–354.Google Scholar
  16. Burckhardt, C. S., Archenholtz, B., & Bjelle, A. (1992). Measuring the quality of life of women with rheumatorial arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. A Swedish version of the QOLS. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 21, 190–195.Google Scholar
  17. Burckhardt, C., Anderson, K. L., Archenholtz, B., & Hägg, O. (2003). The Flanagan quality of life scale: Evidence of construct validity. Health & Social Care in the Community, 1, 59.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Caplan, R. D., Abbey, A., Abramis, D. J., Andrews, F. M., Conway, T. L., & French, J. R. P. (1984). Tranquilizer use and well-being: A longitudinal study of social and psychological effects. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  20. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. (2003). Optimism. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Sydner (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: Handbook of models and measures. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  21. Chambers, S., Hollway, J., Parsons, E. R., & Wallage, C. (2003). Perceived control and wellbeing. Paper presented at the 5th Australian conference on quality of life, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  22. Claiborne, N., Krause, T. M., Heilman, A. E., & Leung, P. (1999). Measuring quality of life in back clients: Comparison of health status questionnaire 2.0 and quality of life inventory. Social Work in Health Care, 28, 77–94.Google Scholar
  23. Clifford, P. R., Edmundson, E. W., Koch, W. R., & Dodd, B. G. (1991). Drug use and life satisfaction among college students. International Journal of the Addictions, 26, 45–53.Google Scholar
  24. Costa, P., & McCrae, R. (1992). Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the NEO Five Factor Inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  25. Cummins, R. A. (1995). On the trail of the gold standard for life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 35, 179–200. doi: 10.1007/BF01079026.Google Scholar
  26. Cummins, R. A. (1997). The comprehensive quality of life scale (CoMQol-A5) manual. Melbourne: Deakin University.Google Scholar
  27. Cummins, R. A. (1998). The second approximation to an international standard of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 43, 307–334. doi: 10.1023/A:1006831107052.Google Scholar
  28. Cummins, R. A. (2003). Normative life satisfaction: Measurement issues and a homeostatic model. Social Indicators Research, 64, 225–256.Google Scholar
  29. Cummins, R. A. (2010). Subjective wellbeing, homeostatically protected mood and depression: A synthesis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 1–17. doi: 10.1007/s10902-009-9167-0.Google Scholar
  30. Cummins, R. A. (2011). Meehl’s “crud” factor, subjective well-being and religiosity: A critique. Psychological Reports, 109, 1–4. doi: 10.2466/04.09.PR0.109.4.43-46.Google Scholar
  31. Cummins, R. A. (2013). The theory of subjective wellbeing homeostasis. (Oxford Bibliographies Online). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Cummins, R. A., & Gullone, E. (2000). Why we should not use 5-point Likert scales: The case for subjective quality of life measurement. Paper presented at the second international conference on quality of life in cities, National University of Singapore, Singapore.Google Scholar
  33. Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. L. D. (2005a). Personal wellbeing index – Intellectual disability manual (3rd Ed., pp. 1–37). Retrieved April 8, 2013, from
  34. Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. L. D. (2005b). Personal wellbeing index – School children, manual (3rd Ed.). Retrieved April 8, 2013, from
  35. Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Pallant, J., Van Vugt, J., & Misajon, R. (2003). Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: The Australian unity wellbeing index. Social Indicators Research, 64, 159–190.Google Scholar
  36. Cummins, R. A., Hughes, J., Tomyn, A., Gibson, A., Woerner, J., & Lai, L. (2007). Australian unity wellbeing index: Report 17.1. The wellbeing of Australians – Carer health and wellbeing. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from
  37. Cummins, R. A., Woerner, J., Weinberg, M., Collard, J., Hartley-Clark, L., Perera, C., & Horfiniak, K. C. (2012). Australian unity wellbeing index: Report 28.0 – The wellbeing of Australians – The impact of marriage. Retrieved April 8, 2013, from
  38. Cummins, R. A., Li, L., Wooden, M., & Stokes, M. (2014). A demonstration of set-points for subjective wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(1), 183–206.Google Scholar
  39. da Rocha, N. S., Power, M. J., Bushnell, D. M., & Fleck, M. P. (2012). The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: Comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF. Value in Health, 15, 449–457.Google Scholar
  40. Daig, I., Herschbach, P., Lehmann, A., Knoll, N., & Decker, O. (2009). Gender and age differences in domain-specific life satisfaction and the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms: A general population survey from Germany. Quality of Life Research, 18, 669–678.Google Scholar
  41. Davern, M., Cummins, R. A., & Stokes, M. (2007). Subjective wellbeing as an affective/cognitive construct. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 429–449. doi: 10.1007/s10902-007-9066-1.Google Scholar
  42. Dazord, A. (1997). The subjective quality of life questionnaire (SQLP): An updated review of validation and results. Quality of Life Newsletter, 18, 7–8.Google Scholar
  43. Dazord, A., Gerin, P., & Boissel, J. P. (1994). Subjective quality of life assessment in therapeutic trials: Presentation of a new instrument in France (SQLP: Subjective quality of life profile) and first results. In J. Orley & W. Kuyken (Eds.), Quality of life assessment: International perspectives (pp. 185–195). New York/London: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Dazord, A., Mino, A., Page, D., & Broers, B. (1998). Patients on methadone maintenance treatment in Geneva. European Psychiatry, 13, 235–241.Google Scholar
  45. Diener, E. (2006). Guidelines for national indicators of subjective well-being and ill-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 397–404.Google Scholar
  46. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.Google Scholar
  47. Eng, W., Cloes, M. E., Heimberg, R. G., & Safren, S. A. (2005). Domains of life satisfaction in social anxiety disorder: Relation to symptoms and response to cognitive-behavioural therapy. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 143–156.Google Scholar
  48. Evans, M. G. (1991). The problem of analyzing multiplicative composites. American Psychologist, 46, 6–15.Google Scholar
  49. Faris, J. A., & Stotts, N. A. T. (1990). The effect of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty on quality of life. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 5, 132–140.Google Scholar
  50. Ferrans, C. E. (1990). Development of a quality of life index for patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 17, 15–21.Google Scholar
  51. Ferrans, C. E., & Powers, M. J. (1985). Quality of life index: Development and psychometric properties. Advances in Nursing Science, 8, 15–24.Google Scholar
  52. Ferrans, C. E., & Powers, M. J. (1992). Psychometric assessment of the quality of life index. Research in Nursing and Health, 15, 29–38.Google Scholar
  53. Flanagan, J. C. (1978). A research approach to improving our quality of life. American Psychologist, 33, 138–147.Google Scholar
  54. Flanagan, J. C. (1979). Identifying opportunities for improving the quality of life of older age groups. Palo Alto: American Institute for Research.Google Scholar
  55. Frisch, M. B. (1993). The quality of life inventory: A cognitive-behavioral tool for complete problem assessment, treatment planning, and outcome evaluation. Behavior Therapist, 16, 42–44.Google Scholar
  56. Frisch, M. B. (1994). Quality of life inventory. Minneapolis: BCDE.Google Scholar
  57. Frisch, M. B. (1998). Quality of life therapy and assessment in health care. Clinical Psychology Review, 5, 19–40.Google Scholar
  58. Frisch, M. B., Cornell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P. J. (1992). Clinical validation of the quality of life inventory: A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4, 92–101.Google Scholar
  59. Fugl-Meyer, A. R., Branholm, I. R., & Fugl-Meyer, K. S. (1991). Happiness and domain-specific life satisfaction in adult Northern Swedes. Clinical Rehabilitation, 5, 25–33.Google Scholar
  60. Fugl-Meyer, A. R., Melin, R., & Fugl-Meyer, K. S. (2002). Life satisfaction in 18- to 64-year-old Swedes: In relation to gender, age, partner and immigrant status. Journal of Rehabitation Medicine, 34, 239–246.Google Scholar
  61. Gerin, P., Dazord, A., Boissel, J., & Chifflet, R. (1992). Quality of life assessment in therapeutic trials: Rationale for and presentation of a more appropriate instrument. Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, 6, 263–276.Google Scholar
  62. Goldbeck, L., Schmitz, T. G., Besier, T., Herschbach, P., & Henrich, G. (2007). Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence. Quality of Life Research, 16, 969–979.Google Scholar
  63. Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. J. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504–528.Google Scholar
  64. Greene, R. A. (2005). Using the ferrans and powers quality of life index of dialysis – A comparison of quality of life in older and younger African Americans receiving hemodialysis. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 21, 230–232.Google Scholar
  65. Hagerty, M. R., Cummins, R. A., Ferris, A. L., Land, K., Michalos, A. C., Peterson, M., & Vogel, J. (2001). Quality of life indexes for national policy: Review and agenda for research. Social Indicators Research, 55, 1–91.Google Scholar
  66. Hall, J. (1976). Subjective measures of quality of life in Britain: 1971 to 1975. Social Trends, 7, 47–60.Google Scholar
  67. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.731.Google Scholar
  68. Heider, D., Angermeyer, M. C., Winkler, I., Schornerus, G., Bebbington, P. E., Brugha, T., & Toumi, M. (2007). A prospective study of quality of life in schizophrenia in three European countries. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 194–202.Google Scholar
  69. Henrich, G., & Herschbach, P. (2000). Questions on life satisfaction (FLZM) – A short questionnaire for assessing subjective quality of life. European Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 150–159.Google Scholar
  70. Hoyt, D. R., & Creech, J. C. (1983). The life satisfaction index: A methodological and theoretical critique. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 111–116.Google Scholar
  71. Huxley, P., & Warner, R. (1992). Case management, quality of life, and satisfaction with services of long-term psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 799–802.Google Scholar
  72. International Wellbeing Group. (2013). Personal wellbeing index manual (5th Ed.) Retrieved from
  73. Kulik, L., & Rayyan, F. (2003). Spousal relations and well-being: A comparative analysis of Jewish and Arab dual-earner families in Israel. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 57–74.Google Scholar
  74. Lai, L. C. H., & Cummins, R. A. (2013). The contribution of job and partner satisfaction to the homeostatic defense of subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 111(1), 203–217. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9991-6.Google Scholar
  75. Lang, J. G., Munoz, R. F., Bernal, G., & Sorenson, J. L. (1982). Quality of life and psychological well-being in a bicultural Latino community. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4, 433–450.Google Scholar
  76. Langeland, E., Wahl, A., Kristoffersen, K., Nortvedt, M. W., & Hanestad, B. R. (2007). Quality of life among Norwegians with chronic mental health problems living in the community versus the general population. Community Mental Health Journal, 43, 321–339. doi: 10.1007/s10597-006-9076-1.Google Scholar
  77. Lawton, M. P. (1982). The well-being and mental health of the aged. In T. Field, A. Stein, H. Quay, L. Troll, & G. E. Finley (Eds.), Review of human development (pp. 614–628). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Leana, C. R., & Feldman, D. C. (1992). Coping with job loss: How individuals and communities respond to layoffs. New York: Lexington Press.Google Scholar
  79. Leelakulthanit, O., & Day, R. L. (1993). Cross cultural comparisons of quality of life of Thais and Americans. Social Indicators Research, 30, 49–70.Google Scholar
  80. Lehman, A. F. (1988). A quality of life interview for the chronically mentally ill. Evaluation and Program Planning, 11, 51–62.Google Scholar
  81. Lehman, A. F., Ward, N. C., & Linn, L. S. (1982). Chronic mental patients: The quality of life issue. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1271–1276.Google Scholar
  82. Liang, J. (1984). Dimensions of the life satisfaction index A: A structural formulation. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 613–622.Google Scholar
  83. Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 309–336.Google Scholar
  84. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  85. Lou, V. W. Q. (2010). Life satisfaction of older adults in Hong Kong: The role of social support from grandchildren. Social Indicators Research, 95, 377–392.Google Scholar
  86. Lunney, C. A., & Schnurr, P. P. (2007). Domains of quality of life and symptoms in male veterans treated for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 955–964.Google Scholar
  87. Man, P. (1991). The influence of peers and parents on youth life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 24, 347–365.Google Scholar
  88. McAlinden, N. M., & Oei, T. P. S. (2006). Validation of the quality of life inventory for patients with anxiety and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 307–314.Google Scholar
  89. McDowell, I., & Newell, C. (1987). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Meehl, P. E. (1990). Why summaries of research on psychological theories are often uninterpretable. Psychological Reports, 66, 195–244.Google Scholar
  91. Michalos, A. C. (1980). Satisfaction and happiness. Social Indicators Research, 8, 385–422.Google Scholar
  92. Michalos, A. C. (1985). Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT). Social Indicators Research, 16, 347–413.Google Scholar
  93. Mikes, P. S., & Hulin, C. L. (1968). Use of importance as a weighting component of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52, 394–398.Google Scholar
  94. Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134–143.Google Scholar
  95. O’Cleirigh, C., & Safren, S. A. (2006). Domains of life satisfaction among patients living with HIV: A factor analytic study of the quality of life inventory. Aids and Behavior, 10, 53–58.Google Scholar
  96. Oliver, J., Huxley, P., Bridges, K., & Mohamad, H. (1996). Quality of life and mental health services. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Olson, D. H., & Barnes, H. L. (1992). Quality of life scale. In D. H. Olson, H. I. McCubbin, H. Barnes, A. Larsen, M. Muxen, & M. Wilson (Eds.), Family inventories (3rd ed., pp. 137–146). Minneapolis: Life Innovations.Google Scholar
  98. Perry, L., & McLaren, S. (2004). An exploration of nutrition and eating disabilities in relation to quality of life at 6 months post-stroke. Health & Social Care in the Community, 1, 288–297.Google Scholar
  99. Post, M. W. M., de Witte, L. P., van Asbeck, F. W. A., van Dijk, A. J., & Schrijvers, A. J. P. (1998). Predictors of health status and life satisfaction in spinal cord injury. Archival Physical Medical Rehabilitation, 79, 395–401.Google Scholar
  100. Priebe, S., Huxley, P., Knight, S., & Evans, S. (1999). Application and results of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45, 7–12.Google Scholar
  101. Rato, R., & Davey, G. (2012). Quality of life in Macau, China. Social Indicators Research, 105, 93–108.Google Scholar
  102. Rato, R., Lio, M., & Whitfield, R. (2007–2009). Macau quality of life reports no. 1–8. Macau: Macau Inter-University Institute.Google Scholar
  103. Renn, D., Pfaffenberger, N., Platter, M., Mitmansgruber, H., Höfer, S., & Cummins, R. A. (2009). International well-being index: The Austrian version. Social Indicators Research, 90, 243–256.Google Scholar
  104. Renwick, R. M., & Reid, D. T. (1992). Life satisfaction of parents of adolescents with Duchenne muscular atrophy: Validation of a new instrument. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 12, 296–312.Google Scholar
  105. Riddick, C. C., & Stewart, D. G. (1994). An examination of the life satisfaction and importance of leisure in the lives of older female retirees: A comparison of blacks to whites. Journal of Leisure Research, 26, 75–87.Google Scholar
  106. Rook, K. S. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1097–1108.Google Scholar
  107. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  108. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.Google Scholar
  109. Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145–172.Google Scholar
  110. Rustoen, T., Wiklund, I., Hanestad, B. R., & Burckhardt, C. S. (1999). Validity and reliability of the Norwegian version of the Ferrans and Powers quality of life index. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 13, 96–102.Google Scholar
  111. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On Happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.Google Scholar
  112. Schmidt, S., Muhlan, H., & Power, M. (2005). The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: Psychometric results of a cross-cultural field study. European Journal of Public Health, 16, 420–428.Google Scholar
  113. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgements of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513–523.Google Scholar
  114. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experience. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglandski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 433–465). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  115. Sirgy, M. J., & Cornwell, T. (2001). Further validation of the Sirgy et al.’s measure of community quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 56, 125–144.Google Scholar
  116. Sirgy, M. J., Rahtz, D. R., Cicic, M., & Underwood, R. (2000). A method for assessing residents’ satisfaction with community-based services: A quality-of-life perspective. Social Indicators Research, 49, 279–317.Google Scholar
  117. Stock, W. A., Okun, M. A., & Benito, J. G. (1994). Subjective well-being measures: Reliability and validity among Spanish elders. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 38, 221–235.Google Scholar
  118. Thomas, M. D., Skilbeck, C. E., & Slatyer, M. (2009). Pre-injury estimates of subjective quality of life following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 23, 516–527.Google Scholar
  119. Thomas, M. D., McGrath, A., & Skilbeck, C. E. (2012). The psychometric properties of the quality of life inventory in an Australian community sample. Australian Journal of Psychology, 64, 225–234.Google Scholar
  120. Tomyn, A. J., & Cummins, R. A. (2011). Subjective wellbeing and homeostatically protected mood: Theory validation with adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 897–914. doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9235-5.Google Scholar
  121. Trauer, T., & Mackinnon, A. (2001). Why are we weighting? The role of importance ratings in quality of life measurement. Quality of Life Research, 10, 579–585.Google Scholar
  122. Treharne, G. J., Kitas, G. D., Lyons, A. C., & Booth, D. A. (2005). Wellbeing in rheumatoid arthritis: The effects of disease duration and psychosocial factors. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 457–474.Google Scholar
  123. Treharne, G. J., Lyons, A. C., Booth, D. A., & Kitas, G. D. (2007). Psychological well-being across 1 year with rheumatoid arthritis: Coping resources as buffers of perceived stress. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 323–362.Google Scholar
  124. van Beuningen, J. (2012). The satisfaction with life scale examining construct validity. Discussion paper (2012209). The Hague: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  125. van Beuningen, J., & de Jonge, T. (2011). The PWI index – Construct validity for the Netherlands. Discussion paper (201124). The Hague: Statistics Netherlands.Google Scholar
  126. Viitanen, M., Fugl-Meyer, K. S., Bernspang, B., & Fugl-Meyer, A. R. (1988). Life satisfaction in long-term survivors after stroke. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 20, 17–24.Google Scholar
  127. Vitterso, J. (2013). Feelings, meanings and optimal functioning: Some distinctions between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In A. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us. Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp 46–69). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  128. Wahl, A., Burckhardt, C., Wiklund, I., & Hanestad, B. R. (1998). The Norwegian version of the Quality of Life Scale [QOLS-N]. A validation and reliability study in patients suffering from psoriasis. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 12, 215–222.Google Scholar
  129. Wahl, A. K., Rustøen, T., Hanestad, B. R., Lerdal, A., & Moum, T. (2004). Quality of life in the general population, measured by the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS-N). Quality of Life Research, 13, 1001–1009.Google Scholar
  130. Wahl, A. K., Rustøen, T., Hanestad, B. R., Gjengedal, E., & Moum, T. (2005). Living with cystic fibrosis: Impact on global quality of life. Heart & Lung, 34, 324–331.Google Scholar
  131. Warr, P. (1978). A study of psychological well-being. British Journal of Psychology, 69, 111–121.Google Scholar
  132. Warr, P., Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1979). Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 129–148.Google Scholar
  133. Waterman, A. S. (1990). The relevance of Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia for the psychological study of happiness. Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology, 10, 39–44. doi: 10.1037/h0091489.Google Scholar
  134. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.Google Scholar
  135. WHOQOL Group. (1998a). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551–558.Google Scholar
  136. WHOQOL Group. (1998b). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties. Social Science and Medicine, 46, 1569–1585.Google Scholar
  137. Wills, E. (2009). Spirituality and subjective well-being: Evidences for a new domain in the personal well-being index. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 49–69.Google Scholar
  138. Wood, V., Wylie, M. L., & Sheafor, B. (1969). An analysis of a short self-report measure of life satisfaction: Correlation with rater judgements. Journal of Gerontology, 24.Google Scholar
  139. Wooden, M. (2002). HILDA survey annual report 2002. Melbourne: University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  140. Woodruff, S. I., & Conway, T. L. (1992a). Impact of health and fitness-related behavior on quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 25, 391–405.Google Scholar
  141. Woodruff, S. I., & Conway, T. L. (1992b). A longitudinal assessment of the impact of health/fitness status and health behavior on perceived quality of life. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 3–14.Google Scholar
  142. Wu, C. H. (2008). Examining the appropriateness of importance weighting on satisfaction score from range-of-affect hypothesis: Hierarchical linear modeling for within-subject data. Social Indicators Research, 86, 101–111.Google Scholar
  143. Wu, C. H., & Yao, G. (2006). Do we need to weight satisfaction scores with importance ratings in measuring quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 78, 305–326.Google Scholar
  144. Wu, C. H., & Yao, G. (2007). Importance has been considered in satisfaction evaluation: An experimental examination of Locke’s range-of-affect hypothesis. Social Indicators Research, 81, 521–542.Google Scholar
  145. Zhang, P. L., Santos, J. M., Newcomer, J., Pelfrey, B. A., Johnson, M. C., & de Erausquin, G. A. (2004). Impact of atypical antipsychotics on quality of life, self-report of symptom severity, and demand of services in chronically psychotic patients. Schizophrenia Research, 71, 137–144.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations