Advertisement

Introduction

  • D. Padmalal
  • K. Maya
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Rivers, the most important life sustaining systems in tropics and subtropics, are under immense pressure due to various kinds of human interventions. Among these, indiscriminate sand and gravel mining from the active channels and floodplains are the most disastrous one as the activity threatens the very existence of the river ecosystem. The problem is acute in small rivers that have limited catchment area (<10,000 km2) and river sand and gravel resources. Lack of adequate information on the adverse impacts of river bed resource extraction is a major setback challenging regulatory systems for the wise-use and management of the rivers and its finite resources. This chapter deals with the historical perspectives, environmental issues and ecological significance of the small rivers of the world that are more responsive to uncontrolled sand and gravel extractions.

Keywords

River sand mining Origin of sand Uses of river sand Small rivers 

References

  1. Bull WB, Scott (1974) Impact of mining gravel from urban stream beds in the Southwestern United States. J Geol 2:171–174Google Scholar
  2. Erskine WD, Geary PM, Outhet DN (1985) Potential impacts of sand and gravel extraction on the Hunter river, New Southwales. Aust Geogr Stud 23:71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. FAO (1998) Rehabilitation of rivers for fish. Food and agriculture. United Nations Organization. Fishing News Books, Oxford, p 260Google Scholar
  4. Goldich SS (1938) A study of rock weathering. J Geol 46:17–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harrison DJ, Fidgett S, Scott PW, Macfarlane M, Mitchell P, Eyre JM, Weeks JM (2005) Sustainable river mining of aggregates in developing countries. In: Marker BR, Petterson MG, McEvoy F, Stephenson MH (eds) Sustainable minerals operations in the developing world. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 250:35–46Google Scholar
  6. Kitetu J, Rowan J (1997) Integrated environmental assessment applied to river sand harvesting in Kenya. In: Patric CK, Lee N (eds) Sustainable development in a developing world—integrated socio-economic appraisal and environmental assessment. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, p 189–199Google Scholar
  7. Kondolf GM (1998) Large scale extraction of alluvial deposits from rivers in California: geomorphic effects and regulatory strategies. In: Klingeman PC, Beschta RL, Komar PD, Bradley JB (eds) Gravel bed rivers in the environment. Water Resources Publications, Colorado, pp 455–470Google Scholar
  8. Kondolf GM (2000) Assessing salmonid spawning gravels. Trans Am Fish Soc 129:262–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kondolf GM, Smeltzer M, Kimball L (2002) Freshwater gravel mining and dredging issues. Report prepared for Washington department of fish and wildlife. Washington Department Of Ecology and Washington Department of Transportation, p 122Google Scholar
  10. Lu XX, Zhang SR, Xie SP, Ma PK (2007) Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China) since the 1990s as a consequence of sediment depletion. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:1897–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S, Sreeja R (2008) Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India. Environ Geol 24:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pettijohn FJ, Potter PE, Siever R (1973) Sand and sandstone. Springer, New York, p 618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. UNEP (1990) Environmental guidelines for sand and gravel extraction projects. Environmental guidelines, No. 20, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, p 37Google Scholar
  14. Walker HJ (1994) Environmental impacts of river dredging in Arctic Alaska (1981–1989). Arctic 47:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Earth Science StudiesThiruvananthapuramIndia

Personalised recommendations