Advertisement

Narrow-Linewidth Lasers on a Silicon Chip

  • Edward H. Bernhardi
  • Markus Pollnau
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics book series (NAPSB)

Abstract

Diode-pumped distributed-feedback (DFB) channel waveguide lasers were demonstrated in Erˆ3+-doped and Ybˆ3+-doped Al2O3 on standard thermally oxidized silicon substrates. Uniform surface-relief Bragg gratings were patterned by laser-interference lithography and etched into the SiO2 top cladding. The maximum grating reflectivity exceeded 99 %. Monolithic DFB cavities with Q-factors of up to 1. 35 × 106 were realized. The Erˆ3+-doped DFB laser delivered 3 mW of output power with a slope efficiency of 41 % versus absorbed pump power. Single-longitudinal-mode operation at a wavelength of 1545.2 nm was achieved with an emission line width of 1. 70 ± 0. 58 kHz, corresponding to a laser Q-factor of 1. 14 × 1011. Yb3+-doped DFB lasers were demonstrated at wavelengths near 1,020 nm with output powers of 55 mW and a slope efficiency of 67 % versus launched pump power. An Ybˆ3+-doped dual-wavelength laser was achieved based on the optical resonances induced by two local phase shifts in the DFB structure. A stable microwave signal at \(\sim 15\,\mathrm{GHz}\) with a –3-dB width of 9 kHz and a long-term frequency stability of ± 2. 5 MHz was created via the heterodyne photo-detection of the two laser wavelengths. Interaction of the intra-cavity evanescent laser field with micro-particles in contact with the grating surface induces changes in the microwave beat signal, whose detection enabled real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 and \(20\,\upmu \mathrm{m}\), which represents the typical size of many fungal and bacterial pathogens. A limit of detection of \(\sim 500\,\mathrm{nm}\) was deduced.

Keywords

Pump Power Slope Efficiency Absorb Pump Power Bragg Wavelength Beat Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Worhoff K, Bradley JDB, Ay F, Geskus D, Blauwendraat TP, Pollnau M (2009) Reliable low-cost fabrication of low-loss Al2O3: Erˆ3+ waveguides with 5.4-dB optical gain. IEEE J Quantum Electron 45:454–461CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bradley J, Ay F, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M (2007) Fabrication of low-loss channel waveguides in Al2O3 and Y2O3 layers by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. Appl Phys B 89:311–318CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bradley JD, Agazzi L, Geskus D, Ay F, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M (2010) Gain bandwidth of 80 nm and 2 dB/cm peak gain in Al2O3: Erˆ3+ optical amplifiers on silicon. J Opt Soc Am B 27:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agazzi L, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M (2013) Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: a case study in amorphous Al2O3: Erˆ3+. J Phys Chem C 117:6759–6776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agazzi L, Bernhardi EH, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M (2012) Impact of luminescence quenching on relaxation-oscillation frequency in solid-state lasers. Appl Phys Lett 100:011109CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradley JD, Stoffer R, Agazzi L, Ay F, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M (2010) Integrated Al2O3: Erˆ3+ ring lasers on silicon with wide wavelength selectivity. Opt Lett 35:73–75CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernhardi E, Lu Q, van Wolferen H, Wörhoff K, de Ridder R, Pollnau M (2011) Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding 106. Photonics Nanostruct Fundam Appl 9:225–234CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bernhardi EH, van Wolferen HAGM, Agazzi L, Khan MRH, Roeloffzen CGH, Wörhoff K, Pollnau M, de Ridder RM (2010) Ultra-narrow-linewidth, single-frequency distributed feedback waveguide laser in Al2O3: Erˆ3+ on silicon. Opt Lett 35:2394–2396CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eichhorn M, Pollnau M (submitted 2014) The theory of continuous-wave lasers in the spot light of the vacuum photonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bauters JF, Heck MJR, John DD, Barton JS, Bruinink CM, Leinse A, Heideman RG, Blumenthal DJ, Bowers JE (2011) Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding. Opt Express 19:24090–24101CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Purnawirman, Sun J, Adam TN, Leake G, Coolbaugh D, Bradley JDB, Hosseini ES, Watts MR (2013) C- and l-band erbium-doped waveguide lasers with wafer-scale silicon nitride cavities. Opt Lett 38:1760–1762CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belt M, Huffman T, Davenport ML, Li W, Barton JS, Blumenthal DJ (2013) Arrayed narrow linewidth erbium-doped waveguide-distributed feedback lasers on an ultra-low-loss silicon-nitride platform. Opt Lett 38:4825–4828CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bernhardi E, van Wolferen H, Wörhoff K, de Ridder R, Pollnau M (2011) Distributed feedback channel waveguide lasers in Erbium- and Ytterbium-Doped Al2O3 on silicon – OSA technical digest (CD). In CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 conference digest, p. CJ10_4, Optical Society of America, MunichGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bernhardi EH, van Wolferen HAGM, Wörhoff K, de Ridder RM, Pollnau M (2011) Highly efficient, low-threshold monolithic distributed-Bragg-reflector channel waveguide laser in Al2O3: Ybˆ3+. Opt Lett 36:603–605CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hale GM, Querry MR (1973) Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-microm wavelength region. Appl Opt 12:555–563CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Villanueva GE, Perez-Millan P, Palaci J, Cruz JL, Andres MV, Marti J (2010) Dual-wavelength DFB Erbium-Doped fiber laser with tunable wavelength spacing. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 22:254–256CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bernhardi EH, Khan MRH, Roeloffzen CGH, van Wolferen HAGM, Wörhoff K, de Ridder RM, Pollnau M (2012) Photonic generation of stable microwave signals from a dual-wavelength Al2O3: Ybˆ3+ distributed-feedback waveguide laser. Opt Lett 37:181–183CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bernhardi EH, van der Werf KO, Hollink AJF, Wörhoff K, de Ridder RM, Subramaniam V, Pollnau M (2013) Intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensing with a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback laser. Laser Photonics Rev 7:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Integrated Optical Microsystems Group, MESA+ Institute for NanotechnologyUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations