Contributions of Descriptive and Functional Genomics to Microbial Ecology
Originally, “genomics” was used only to describe a scientific discipline which consisted in mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genomes. Nowadays, this term is widely used by a growing number of people in a broader sense to describe global techniques for studying genomes including from a functional point of view. These include the analysis of messenger RNAs (transcriptomics), protein contents (proteomics), and metabolites (metabolomics). At a higher level of complexity, it also describes the so-called “meta” approaches that allow to investigate the ecology of microbial communities, including uncultured microorganisms. Based on the use of recent technological developments, the numerous examples provide an integrated view of how microorganisms adapt to particular ecological niches and participate in the dynamics of ecosystems.
KeywordsBacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Cloning Cosmid Cultured and uncultured strains DNA chips Genomics High-performance liquid chromatography or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) High-resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC) Isoelectric focusing (IEF) Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Metabolomics Metagenomics Plasmid Proteomics Pyrosequencing Sequencing Shotgun Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Synteny Transcriptomics
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