Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Jean-Claude Bertrand
  • Patricia Bonin
  • Pierre Caumette
  • Jean-Pierre Gattuso
  • Gérald Grégori
  • Rémy Guyoneaud
  • Xavier Le Roux
  • Robert Matheron
  • Franck Poly
Chapter

Abstract

All living organisms contribute to the biogeochemical cycles, but microorganisms, due to their high abundance, their tremendous metabolic capacities and adaptation potential, play a key role in the functioning and the evolution of biogeochemical cycles. Consequently, they are keyplayers in adaptation, resistance and resilience of ecosystems. The role of microorganisms in the main biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, metals), in soils, freshwater and marine ecosystems is presented. Microbial processes involved in the turnover of biogeochemical cycles are discussed from gene to ecosystem (natural and anthropogenic ecosystems), at global, regional and local scales, as well as in targeted microenvironments (such as particles or microniches). The biodiversity of microorganisms is highlighted and their metabolic pathways on which are based exchanges and biotransformations of organic and mineral components within ecosystems are described in details. The impacts of human activities on the microbial actors and processes of biogeochemical cycles, and the cascading ecological effects (greenhouse gas emissions, acid rains, dystrophic crises, etc.), are also discussed.

Keywords

Anoxic zones Biogeochemical cycles Carbon cycle Ecosystem functioning Iron cycle Lake ecosystems Manganese cycle Marine ecosystems Mercury cycle Microbial functions Nitrogen cycle Oxic zones Phosphate cycle Silicon cycle Soils Sulfur cycle 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Claude Bertrand
    • 1
  • Patricia Bonin
    • 1
  • Pierre Caumette
    • 2
  • Jean-Pierre Gattuso
    • 3
  • Gérald Grégori
    • 1
  • Rémy Guyoneaud
    • 2
  • Xavier Le Roux
    • 4
  • Robert Matheron
    • 5
  • Franck Poly
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut Méditerranéen d’Océanologie (MIO)UM 110, CNRS 7294 IRD 235, Université de Toulon, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille Cedex 9France
  2. 2.Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’AdourPau CedexFrance
  3. 3.Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d’ OcéanographieCNRS-UPMCVillefranche-sur-Mer CedexFrance
  4. 4.Microbial Ecology CenterUMR CNRS 5557 / USC INRA 1364, Université Lyon 1VilleurbanneFrance
  5. 5.Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE)UMR-CNRS-IRD 7263, Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille Cedex 20France

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