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RXRs: Collegial Partners

  • Federica Gilardi
  • Béatrice Desvergne
Chapter
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 70)

Abstract

Retinoid X Receptors (RXR) were initially identified as nuclear receptors binding with stereo-selectivity the vitamin A derivative 9-cis retinoic acid, although the relevance of this molecule as endogenous activator of RXRs is still elusive. Importantly, within the nuclear receptor superfamily, RXRs occupy a peculiar place, as they are obligatory partners for a number of other nuclear receptors, thus integrating the corresponding signaling pathways. In this chapter, we describe the structural features allowing RXR to form homo- and heterodimers, and the functional consequences of this unique ability. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of studying RXR activity at a genome-wide level in order to comprehensively address the biological implications of their action that is fundamental to understand to what extent RXRs could be exploited as new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor Heterodimerization Partner Nuclear Receptor Binding Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

RXR

Retinoid X receptor

NR

Nuclear receptor

DBD

DNA-binding domain

LBD

Ligand binding domain

NCOR1

Nuclear receptor corepressor 1

SMRT

Silencing mediator of Retinoid acid and Thyroid hormone receptor

RA

Retinoic acid

ER

Estrogen receptor

RAR

Retinoid acid receptor

TR

Thyroid hormone receptor

VDR

Vitamin D receptors

EMSA

Electrophoretic mobility shift assay

COUP-TFs

Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

FXR

Farnesoid X receptor

LXR

Liver X receptor

NGFI-B

Nerve growth factor-induced protein I-B

Nurr1

Nuclear receptor related 1

AR

Androgen receptor

MR

Mineralcorticoid receptor

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

PXR

Pregnane X receptor

CAR

Constitutive androstane receptor

HNF4

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4

SHP

Small heterodimer partner

DR

Direct repeat

EM

Cryo electron microscopy

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

SAXS

Small angle X-ray

SANS

Small single neutron scattering

FRET

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer

HDX

Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

SRC-1

Steroid receptor coactivator 1

TIF2

Transcriptional intermediary factor 2

AF2

Activating function 2

MAPK

Mitogen-activated kinase

PKC

Protein kinase C

FABP4

Fatty acid binding protein 4

BSEP1

Bile salt export pump 1

ER

Everted repeat

IR

Inverted repeat

HMCS2

3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2

DHA

Docohexanoic acid

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

TBT

Trybutyltin chloride

TSS

Transcription start site

TZD

Thiazolidinedione

SNuRM

Selective nuclear receptor modulator

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Integrative GenomicsUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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