Ainsworth, M. D. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709–716.
Askeland, I. R., Evang, A., & Heir, T. (2011). Association of violence against partner and former victim experiences: A sample of clients voluntarily attending therapy. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 1095–1110.
Ball, J. D. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of abuse of incarcerated fathers. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 371–390.
Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335.
Bower-Russa, M. (2005). Attitudes mediate the association between childhood disciplinary history and disciplinary responses. Child Maltreatment, 10, 272–282.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss (Attachment, Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.
Byrd, P. M., & Davis, J. L. (2009). Violence behavior in female inmates: Possible predictors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 379–392.
Carr, J. L., & Van Deusen, K. M. (2002). The relationship between family of origin violence and dating violence in college man. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 630–646.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J. L., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854.
Caykoylu, A., Ibilogllu, A. O., Taner, Y., Potas, N., & Taner, E. (2011). The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 3455–3475.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). Perspectives on research and practice in developmental psychopathology. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 479–583). New York: Wiley.
Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (2008). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for children and parents. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 13, 158–162.
Crittendon, P. M., & Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Child maltreatment and attachment theory. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment (pp. 432–463). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Currie, J., & Widom, C. S. (2010). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreatment, 15, 111–120.
Curtis, G. C. (1963). Violence breeds violence–perhaps? American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 386–387.
De Bellis, M. D. (2001). Developmental traumatology: The psychobiological development of maltreated children and its implications for research, treatment, and policy. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 539–564.
De Bellis, M. D., Broussard, H. R., Herring, D. J., Wexler, S., Moritz, G., & Benitez, J. G. (2001). Psychiatric co-morbidity in caregivers and children involved in maltreatment: A pilot research study with policy implications. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 923–944.
Dixon, L., Browne, K., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005). Risk factors of parents abused as children: A mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (part 1). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 46, 47–57.
Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678–1683.
Dussich, J. P. J., & Maekoya, C. (2007). Physical child harm and bullying-related behaviors: A comparative study in Japan, South Africa, and the United States. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51, 495–509.
Egeland, B. (1993). A history of abuse is a major risk factor for abusing in the next generation. In R. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp. 197–208). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
English, D. J., Widom, C. S., & Brandford, C. (2001). Childhood victimization and delinquency, adult criminality, and violent criminal behavior: A replication and extension (Final report, no. NCJ192291). Rockville: National Institute of Justice.
Fikree, F. F., Razzak, J. A., & Durocher, J. (2005). Attitudes of Pakistani men to domestic violence: A study from Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Men’s Health and Gender, 2, 49–58.
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S. L., & Kracke, K. (2009). Children’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=249751
Foley, D. L., Eaves, L. J., Wormley, B., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., Kuhn, J., et al. (2004). Childhood adversity, monoamine oxidase a genotype, and risk for conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 738–744.
Fujiwara, T., Okuyama, M., & Izumi, M. (2010). The cycle of violence: Childhood abuse history, domestic violence and child maltreatment among Japanese mothers. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychological Sciences, 53, 211–224.
Garbarino, J. (1977). The human ecology of child maltreatment: A conceptual model for research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 721–735.
Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D. M., Elspeth, W., & Janson, S. (2009). Child maltreatment 1. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet, 373, 68–81.
Glaser, D. (2000). Child abuse and neglect and the brain-a review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 41, 97–116.
Gover, A. R., Park, M., Tomsich, E. A., & Jennings, W. G. (2011). Dating violence perpetration and victimization among South Korean college students: A focus on gender and childhood maltreatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 1232–1263.
Grace, J. K., Dean, K., Ottinger, M., & Anderson, D. J. (2011). Hormonal effects of maltreatment in Nazca booby nestlings: Implications for the “cycle of violence”. Hormones and Behavior, 60, 78–85.
Harlow, C. W. (1999). Prior abuse reported by inmates and probationers (Special report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Heyman, R. E., & Slep, A. (2002). Do child abuse and interparental violence lead to adulthood family violence? Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 864–870.
Hines, D. A., & Saudino, K. J. (2002). Intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence: A behavioral genetic perspective. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 3, 210–225.
Jaffee, S. R. (2012). The role of genotype in the development of psychopathology in maltreated children. In C. S. Widom (Ed.), Trauma, psychopathology, and violence: Causes, consequences, or correlates (pp. 49–75). New York: Oxford University Press.
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Taylor, A. (2004). Physical maltreatment victim to antisocial child: Evidence of an environmentally mediated process. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 44–55.
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Thomas, M., & Taylor, A. (2007). Individual, family and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 231–253.
Kitzman, H., Olds, D., Henderson, C., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Tatelbaum, R., et al. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 644–652.
Koenen, K. C., Saxe, G., Purcell, S., Smoller, J. W., Bartholomew, D., Miller, A., et al. (2005). Polymorphisms in FKBP5 are associated with peritraumatic dissociation in medically injured children. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 1058–1059.
Langhinrichsen-Rholing, J. (2005). Top 10 greatest ‘hits’: Important findings and future directions for intimate partner violence research. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 108–118.
Lansford, J. E., Miller-Johnson, S., Berlin, L. J., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2007). Early physical abuse and later violent delinquency: A prospective longitudinal study. Child Maltreatment, 12, 233–245.
Maas, C., Herronkohl, T. I., & Sousa, C. (2008). Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 9, 56–67.
Maestripieri, D., McCormack, K., Lindell, S. G., Higley, J. D., & Sanchez, M. M. (2006). Influence of parenting style on the offspring’s behaviour and CSF monoamine metabolite levels in crossfostered and noncrossfostered female rhesus macaques. Behavioural Brain Research, 175, 90–95.
Margolin, G., & Gordis, E. B. (2000). The effects of family and community violence on children. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 445–479.
Maxfield, M. G., & Widom, C. S. (1996). The cycle of violence: Revisited six years later. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 390–395.
Maxwell, C. D., & Maxwell, S. R. (2003). Experiencing and witnessing familial aggression and their relationship to physically aggressive behaviors among Filipino adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1432–1451.
Nikulina, V., Widom, C. S., & Czaja, S. (2010). The role of childhood neglect and childhood poverty in predicting mental health, academic achievement and crime in adulthood. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 309–321.
O’Keefe, M. (1995). Predictors of child abuse in maritally violent families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 3–25.
Olds, D., Henderson, C., Tatelbaum, R., & Chamberlin, R. (1990). Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 77, 16–28.
Olds, D., Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C., Kitzman, H., Powers, J., Cole, R., et al. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Journal of American Medical Association, 278, 637–643.
Osofsky, J. D. (1999). The impact of violence on children. Domestic Violence and Children, 9, 33–49.
Park, A., Smith, C., & Ireland, T. (2012). Equivalent harm? The relative roles of maltreatment and exposure to intimate partner violence in antisocial outcomes for young adults. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 962–972. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.029.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys: A social interactional approach (Vol. 4). Eugene: Castalia.
Pfeiffer, C., & Wetzels, P. (1999). The structure and development of juvenile violence in Germany (Fors Chungsberichte, 76). Hannover: KFN. doi:https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=192699
Pulido, M. (2001). Pregnancy: A time to break the cycle of family violence. Health and Social Work, 26, 120–124.
Rodriguez, C. M., & Tucker, M. C. (2011). Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: A brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential. Violence and Victims, 26, 246–256.
Roth, T. L., & Champagne, F. A. (2012). Epigenetic pathways and the consequences of adversity and trauma. In C. S. Widom (Ed.), Trauma, psycholopathology, and violence: Causes, consequences, or correlates (pp. 23–48). New York: Oxford University Press.
Saldana, L., & Henggeler, S. W. (2006). Multisystemic therapy in the treatment of adolescent conduct disorder. In W. M. Nelson, A. J. Finch, & K. J. Hart (Eds.), Conduct disorders: A practitioner’s guide to comparative treatments. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Sanchez, M. M., & Pollak, S. (2009). Socioemotional development following early abuse and neglect: Challenges and insights from translational research. In M. De Haan & M. R. Gunnar (Eds.), Handbook of developmental social neuroscience. New York: Guilford Press.
Schuck, A. M., & Widom, C. S. (2005). Understanding the role of neighborhood context in the long-term criminal consequences of child maltreatment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 207–222.
Schulz-Heik, R. J., Rhee, S. H., Slilver, L. E., Haberstick, B. C., Hopfer, C. J., Lessem, J. M., et al. (2010). The association between conduct problems and maltreatment: Testing genetic and environmental mediation. Behavior Genetics, 40, 338–348.
Simonelli, C. J., Mullis, T., Elliott, A. N., & Pierce, T. W. (2002). Abuse by siblings and subsequent experiences of violence within the dating relationship. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 103–121.
Simons, D. A., & Wurtele, S. K. (2010). Relationships between parents’ use of corporal punishment and their children’s endorsement of spanking and hitting other children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 639–646.
Smith, C., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency. Criminology, 33, 451–481.
Smith, C. A., Thornberry, T. P., Ireland, T. O., & Elwyn, L. (2008). Childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior: Comparison of self-reported and substantiated maltreatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78, 173–186.
Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., et al. (2003). A mental health intervention for school children exposed to violence: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 603–611.
Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Homish, D. L., & Wei, E. (2001). Maltreatment of boys and the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 941–955.
Straus, M. A. (1991). Discipline and deviance: Physical punishment of children and violence and other crime in adulthood. Social Problems, 38, 133–154.
Swenson, C. C., Schaeffer, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Faldowski, R., & Mayhew, A. (2010). Multisystemic therapy for child abuse and neglect: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 497–507.
Taubes, G. (2007, September 16). Do we really know what makes us healthy? New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Child maltreatment 2010. Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can
Wang, C. T., & Holton, J. (2007). Total estimated cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States (Economic Impact Study). Chicago: The Pew Charitable Trusts.
White, S. O., & Straus, M. A. (1981). The implications of family violence for rehabilitation strategies. In S. E. Martin, L. B. Sechrest, & R. Redner (Eds.), New directions in the rehabilitation of criminal offenders (pp. 255–288). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Widom, C. S. (1989a). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160–166.
Widom, C. S. (1989b). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 3–28.
Widom, C. S. (2000). Motivation and mechanisms in the “cycle of violence”. In D. J. Hansen (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 46, pp. 1–37). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Widom, C. S., & Brzustowicz, L. M. (2006). MAOA and the “cycle of violence”: Childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 684–689.
Wolfe, D., Wekerle, C., & Scott, K. (2003). Dating violence prevention with at-risk youth: A controlled outcome evaluation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 279–291.
Zingraff, M. T., Leiter, J., Myers, K. A., & Johnsen, M. (1993). Child maltreatment and youthful problem behavior. Criminology, 31, 173–202.